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Simple Carbohydrates - list 6 exemples Sugars, syrup, molasses, honey, fruit and milk
complex carbohydrates - list 8 examples Bread, cereal, potatoes, rice, pasta, crackers, flour products, legumes
Carbohydrates ______ kilocalorie/gram 4
______: “Cold and clammy. I need candy” ______:” Hot and dry, my sugar is high” Hypo Hyper
Low and high blood glucose levels: _______mg/dL is the level of maintenance Fasting: _______ mg/dL 2 hours PP (postprandial) _______ mg/dL (this is 2 hours after meal is consumed) 80-110 60-80 140-180
severe malnutrition lack of proteins an, vitamins and minerals (wasting away of muscles , wrinkled skin, hair dull and dry Marasmus
Proteins _____ Kilocalorie/gram 4
sudden, recent lack of protein as seen in famine, fat accumulates in the liver result of protein results in edema , decreased immune system , skin lesions Kwashiorkor
Name 6 sources of complete proteins Meat, fish, poultry, milk, cheese and eggs
Found in dried beans and peas, cereal, bread, seeds, grains, fruits and vegetables incomplete proteins
Fats (Lipids) Provides _____ Cal/GRAM 9
Saturated fats raises cholesterol
canola, peanut oil, almonds, avocado, cashews, olives and peanuts are examples of Monounsaturated (MUFA)
corn, mustard seed, safflower, sesame, soybean and sunflower oils, halibut, herring, mackerel, salmon, sardines, fresh tuna, trout and whitefish are examples of Polyunsaturated (PUFA)
Animal fats that are mainly hard: lard, bacon fat Also beef, lamb, processed meats, chicken fat, fish, coconut oil, palm oil, fried and baked goods. Whole milk, cheese butter, cream, ice cream and shortening are examples of Saturated fats
vegetable fats that are liquid form: safflower, olive oils are examples of Unsaturated fats
results in decreased circulating hemoglobin in the RBC;s which are carrying oxygen Iron deficiency anemia
contains oxalic acid and binds with iron which inhibits its absorption spinach
Sources of iron Liver, red meat, fish, poultry
Fiber (Soluble vs. Insoluble) Deficiency in:can cause Soluble: _________ Insoluble: __________ Diarrhea Constipation
becomes a gel and delays gastrointestinal transit time because of this; soluble fiber helps prevent diarrhea in tube fed patients Sources; Barley, flax seeds, pectin. Peas, citrus fruits (Metamucil, psyllium fiber) soluble fiber
does not change in water and accelerates intestinal transit; this is helpful in preventing constipation in patients receiving narcotic pain medications; promotes bowel movements ,prevents constipation Removes toxic waste in less time insoluble fiber
important in the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, contraction and relaxation of muscles (esp. the heart) calcium
reduction in bone mass seen in the elderly men and postmenopausal women Osteoporosis
Osteomalacia and rickets (children) and Osteoporosis caused by deficiency in calcium
sources of calcium Milk, yogurt, cheese, fortified cereals, rice, soy milk, tofu
Salt, shellfish sources of Deficiency can cause Iodine Goiter
Calcium Deficiency Hypothyroidism, renal failure, menopause, infantile rickets
Helps maintain fluid and acid-base balance Sodium (Na)
Milk and milk products; it is better absorbed with Vitamin D
Sodium 75% are from processed meats, pickles, brine, cured and smoked meats .10% come from natural sources including salt, milk, meat, poultry, fish and eggs 15% comes from discretionary use (in cooking and at the table)
functions in protein synthesis, in fluid balance, and in regulation of muscle contractions Potassium (K)
Potassium (K) is found in Bananas, bread, cereals, fruits and vegetables
Potassium is Restricted in patients with renal impairment or failure.
Beta carotene is the pre-cursor and is found in colored fruits and vegetables Animal sources-eggs, meats and dairy products Vit A
Night blindness, xeropthalmia (eye dryness); poor tooth and bone development Also treat acne (Retinol) Deficiencies in vit A
Deficiency: poor appetite, apathy, mental depression, fatigue, constipation, edema, cardiac failure, and neuritis. B1
B1 thiamine-important for GI and CV functioning found on Cereals, fish, liver, lean meat and milk, beans
B complex vitamins are composed of B1, 2, 3, 6 and 12
B complex and Vitamin C are water soluble vitamins and are excreted daily
Fat Soluble vitamins __ __ __ __ Intake of excessive amounts can lead to toxicity because it is absorbed with fat into the circulation K A D E
needed for formation of prothrombin and other clotting factors vit K
Vit k is found in Kale, Spinach, Brussels sprouts, Parsley, Collard greens, Mustard greens, Chard, Green tea, Cabbages, cauliflower, spinach, leafy green vegetables, soybean and canola oil , liver
An _______ amount amount of Vit K may alter blood thinner effects especially in patients taking Coumadin (oral anti-coagulant) ) excessive
Vit K deficiencies Bleeding tendencies
Vitamin D sources Sunshine, milk, cheese, butter, fish oils, salmon, , margarine, fortified cereals and breads
Intestinal absorption of calcium, mobilization of calcium and phosphorous, renal absorption of calcium. _____ is changed to an active form by exposure to ultraviolet light Deficiency: Osteomalacia in adults Rickets in children Vit D
sources of vit C Fresh citrus fruits, strawberries, tomatoes, cabbage, cherries, liver
Protect against infection, Adequate wound healing, collagen formation, iron absorption, metabolism of several amino acids Deficiency-Scurvy Vit C
B12 is found Only in animal foods…shellfish, meats, liver , poultry, milk, eggs
B12 functions in the formation of mature red blood cells
Deficiency –pernicious anemia Seen in vegetarians due to the lack of meat product intake or in patients who have malabsorption problems due to the lack of the intrinsic factor (seen in gastric resection or gastrectomy patients) B12
B9 is found in Beans, legumes, citrus fruits, shellfish, whole grains, liver, dark green leafy vegetables, poultry , pork
B9 Folic Acid-necessary for red blood cell formation, and in early pregnancy is essential for spine and spinal cord development in the fetus
(deficiency- neural tube defects) Deficiency: glossitis, diarrhea, macrocytic anemia and birth defect B9
Source of B3 Dairy, poultry, fish, lean meats, eggs, beans
Lowers cholesterol Needed for glycogenesis (breakdown of glycogen) Deficiency: Pellegra: symptoms include headache, fatigue, loss of appetite, weight loss, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dermatitis, and neurological deteriorations B3
source of B2 Cereals, nuts, milk, eggs, green leafy vegetables, lean meats,nuts
Deficiency: Cheilosis (cracks and fissures at corner of the mouth, dermatitis, increased vascularization of cornea, and other vision irregularities. ETOH (alcohol) causes deficiency B2 – Riboflavin
Disease associated with B1 deficiency Beriberi
_______are biochemical substances obtained from ingested food and fluids. Nutrients
_______are organic compounds composed of polymers of amino acids connected by peptide bonds. Proteins
_______is the process by which foods is broken down for the body to use in growth, development, healing, and disease prevention. Digestion
_________is the complex chemical process that occurs in the cells to allow for energy use and for cellular growth and repair. Metabolism
________ metabolism is the amount of energy required to carry out involuntary activities at rest. Basal
what are three primary components that make up your body's energy expenditure? basal metabolic rate, energy expended during physical activity, and the thermic effect of food
Most of the body's energy, about 60-70%, goes to supporting the ongoing metabolic work of the body's cells. This includes such activities as heart beat, respiration and maintaining body temperature Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Physical activity has a profound effect on _____________ and contributes 20-30 % to the body's total ENERGY OUTPUT human energy expenditure
The last component to calculate has to do with your body's management of food. The increase in energy required to digest food is referred to as thermic effect of food (TEF)
Name two micronutrients. Vitamins and minerals
Water is the body's major solvent, and it serves in lubrication, temperature control, and waste removal. A water deficiency can kill more quickly than a deficiency of any other nutrient. Therefore, It should occupy the category_________. macronutrient
Carbs main functions Spare body protein Help prevent ketosis Enhance learning and memory processes
_____the blood glucose is lower than normal, can be symptoms of liver or pancreatic abnormalities. Hypoglycemia
_______higher than normal due to inadequate production or use of insulin, occurs in diabetes mellitus Hyperglycemia
What is fiber? Component of food that adds bulk to the diet and is not broken down by digestion
What are proteins main functions? -made of amino-acids which are the building blocks and the most important components. They are essential for synthesis of body tissue growth, maintenance and repair. -They are a source of energy.
Where would you get Beta-Carotene? Comes from leafy intensely colored fruits and veggies. It is a precursor to Vitamin A
What is a deficiency of Vitamin C? Scurvy
What are the main functions of Vitamin B12? Metabolism, RBC formation, Maintenance or the CNS (Brain, and Spinal Cord)
Where would you obtain Vitamin C? Citrus fruits, Green pepper, Strawberries, Tomatoes, Broccoli, Potatoes
What are the functions of Vitamin C? Promotes healthy immune system, Wound healing, Maintains blood vessels and connective tissue, Aids in absorption of iron
What are some deficiencies of Folic Acid (Vitamin B9)? RBC production, Neural tube formation (Spina Bifida)
Where would you find Thiamine (Vitamin B1)? Convert food to Energy, Aids in heart function and CVS, Aids the brain and nervous System
Deficiencies of Thiamine (B1) include what? Loss of reflex, Edema, Foot and Wrist Drop, Painful Muscles
What are the Deficiencies associated with Riboflavin (B2)? Dermatitis, Glossitis, Cheilosis, Anemia, Erythroid Hypoplasia
What are the deficiencies associated with Niacin (B3) Pellagra: Associated symptoms include: Scaley sores, mucosal changes, mental symptoms
Inorganic elements present in small amounts in virtually all body fluids and tissues. Do not yield energy and are not metabolized. Minerals
Soft Bones and tendency towards spontaneous fractures Osteomalacia
Define Iron deficiency anemia: circulating hemoglobin is reduced and the blood cannot provide for the oxygen needs of the tissues.
Sodium main function: As an ion, it helps maintain fluid and acid-base balance. Primarily found in the extracellular fluid in the body
Potassium main functions: mineral salt (electrolyte) that is essential for maintaining the balance of pH levels in our body fluids. It plays an important role in regulating our blood pressure; bone mass, nervous system, muscle function, and heart, kidney, and adrenal functions.
Fluoride Main function: maintains bone structure and reduces tooth decay by strengthening tooth enamel.
Water main functions An inorganic nutrient 60 to 70% of total body weight Infants have the greatest percent Older people have the least Transports nutrients&waste products. Serves as a solvent, lubricant&cushion. Regulates body temp. Maintains blood volume.
What is the Dietary Reference Intake?(DRI) it has multiple values for specified age groups, physiologic states and gender. It is a combination of estimated average requirements (EARs), RDA (Recommended dietary allowances) adequate intakes (AIs) and tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) &replaced RDA
_______the process by which the digested nutrients are actively and passively transported through the intestinal mucosa into the blood or lymphatic system Absorption
_______the process by which foods are broken down for the body to use in growth and development, healing and prevention of disease. It is the mechanical and chemical processes necessary to convert foods into their physically absorbable states. Digestion
___________the complex chemical process that occurs in the cells to allow for energy use and for cellular growth and repair. Metabolism
The _____ is a major immunologic organ and contains 70-80% of all immune-secreting cells. 25% of the ______ is lymphoid tissue. An intact and active _____ plays an important role as a first line defense against infection GI Tract
a measure of the nutrients a food provides compared to the calories it contains. NUTRIENT DENSITY
skim milk and ice cream both provide calcium but one cup of skim milk only contain 85 calories and one cup of ice cream 250calories. Which is denser? Skim milk
diet primarily plant based Vegetarian
diet that you avoid meat, fish and poultry but eat eggs and milk Ovo-lacto-vegetarians
Lacto vegetarians Drink milk but avoid eggs and other animal based foods.
Eat only foods of plant origin and are at risk for vitamin b12 and protein deficiency Vegans
Problems with acute GI disturbances, before procedures, after GI surgery or after intravenous feeding. Clear liquid diet
includes milk and opaque liquids such as fruit nectars, strained oatmeal, cream soups and ice cream Full liquid diet
Problems with lactose intolerance may need a supplement (Lact-aid) to assist with the intolerance
Problems with diabetes or high sugar Based on person’s metabolic needs Use foods with LOW glycemic index
Problems with cardiovascular diseases Low fat diet include lean cut of meats, fat free milk and products, fruits and vegetables, margarine, vegetable oil, olive oil. Problems with diabetes or high sugar
___________is a systemic measurement of the size and makeup of the body at specific body sites Anthropometry
percentage of red blood cells found in 100 mL of blood. This measure of size and number of cells in the blood, combined with the hemoglobin value, aids in determining the presence and severity of anemia. Hematocrit
measures the blood's oxygen- and iron-carrying capacity. A decreased hemoglobin value indicates decreased iron intake or decreased iron reserves, conditions that often are present in anemia. Hemoglobin
How could you test for Anemia? Hematocrit and Hemoglobin Count Tests for Anemia
_____________ and _________ are protein markers that help assess nutritional status. Serum Albumin and Prealbumin
____________can be related to over hydration and may not necessarily indicate malnutrition. low albumin level
_________has a half-life of 2 days and accurately assesses protein synthesis and nitrogen balance._________is a better measure for nutritional status It is considered a very sensitive and specific marker for nutritional status. Prealbumin
Blood protein that binds with iron and is important in its transport, is considered a sensitive indicator of protein deficiency. Transferrin
Which would be a better indicator of protein deficiency and why, Albumin or Transferrin? Why? Transferrin. It is synthesized in the liver, increases when iron stores are low and decreases when iron stores are high.
The rate of creatinine formation is proportional to total muscle mass. It is excreted from the body through the kidney. As muscles atrophy during malnutrition, creatinine excretion decreases. Creatinine
In severe nutritional depletion, clients may be unable to mount an immune response (_______). Commonly, this is seen as the lymphocyte count decreases with protein depletion. Anergy - indicates the need for aggressive nutritional support.
Created by: asanders