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APII Respiratory


The conducting portion of the respiratory system consists of the nose, ____ ____, ____, ____, ____ and primary bronchi to terminal bronchioles. nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea
The respiratory portion of the respiratory system consists of respiratory bronchioles, ____ ducts and ____. alveolar, alveoli
The main function of the respiratory system is breathing. Some other functions are: gas ____, ____ production, ____, and defense. conditioning, sound, olfaction
External respiration is the exchange of gases between ____ and ____. atmosphere, blood
Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between the ____ and ____ in the ____. blood, cells, body
Before getting to gas exchange surfaces, gas is warmed to body temperature, ____, and ____. humidified, cleansed
Gas conditioning is facilitated by twisted pathways of nose and paranasal sinuses, to keep air there longer for _____. conditioning.
Air forced out from the lungs, moves through ____ then sound is produced like speech and singing. larynx
Structures that aid in sound production are the nasal cavity, ____ ____, teeth, lips and ____. paranasal sinuses, tongue
The nasal cavity is covered with ____ epithelium that contains receptors to sense smell. olfactory
The nose is lined with coarse hairs, and twisted pathways to prevent large particles, microorganisms and insects from entering. The nose is lined with coarse hairs, and twisted pathways to prevent large particles, microorganisms and insects from entering.
____ ____ produce mucous to keep humidity and secrete lysozyme to kill bacteria. Goblet cells
Anatomically, the respiratory system can be divided into upper and lower respiratory ____. tracts
Functionally, the respiratory system can be divided into ____ and ____ portions. conducting, respiratory
The upper respiratory tract is comprised of: nose and nasal cavities, ____ ____ and ____. These are all part of the conducting portion of the respiratory system. paranasal sinuses, pharynx
The ____ is the main conducting airway for inhaled air. nose
The nose is supported anteroinferiorly from the bridge (nasal bones) by the fleshy, cartilaginous ____ ____. This is supported by a pair of lateral cartilages and 2 pairs of ____ ____. dorsum nasi, alar cartilages
The anterior region of the nose, near the nostrils, is called the ____. vestibule
The nasal cavity begins as the internal component of the nose and ends as openings to the nasopharynx known as ____. choanae
In the nasal cavity, the roof consists of: the frontal bone, nasal bones, cribiform plate of ____ ____ and ____ ____ and olfactory epithelium. ethmoid bone and sphenoid bone
In the nasal cavity, the floor consists of: ____ and ____ bones. maxillae,palatine
The nasal cavity is lined with ____ ____ ____ epithelium, many goblet cells producing mucin, and coarse hairs (also known as____). pseudostratified ciliated columnar, vibrissae
The nasal septum divides the nasal cavity into right and left portions and forms the ____ ____ of each cavity. medial wall
The superior, middle and inferior ____ ____ form the lateral wall for each cavity, dividing the nose into air passages called ____ ____. nasal conchae, nasal meatus
The nasal conchae condition the air within the nasal cavity, having the “____ ____”. turbinate bones
Four bones of the skull contain paired air spaces called paranasal sinuses. These spaces make the bones lighter in weight and are named after the bones in which they reside, which are: ____, ____, ____ and ____ frontal, ethmoidal, sphenoidal, maxillary
All paranasal sinuses are lined with the same epithelium and are connected to the nasal cavity by ____. ducts
One of the few areas of the body that is shared by two organ systems (digestive and respiratory) is the ____. pharynx
The pharynx is divided into three regions: ____, ____, and ____ nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
The pharynx starts behind the nasal and oral cavities, and ends at the bifurcation of the ____ and the ____. larynx and esophagus
The ____ is lined with muscle and is primarily used for swallowing. pharynx
The ____ is continuous with the nasal cavity and superior to the soft palate. nasopharynx
In the ____, only air passes through. This can change in special cases like vomiting or eating while laughing. nasopharynx
The opening of the auditory tubes (eustachian tubes) are found in the lateral walls of the ____. They equalize the pressure. nasopharynx
The posterior nasopharynx wall houses a single ____ ____, also known as a/an ____. pharyngeal tonsil, adenoid
The oropharynx begins at the end of the soft palate and ends at the level of the ____ bone. hyoid
The oropharynx is lined with ____ ____ ____ epithelium to withstand abrasion. nonkeratinized stratified squamous
The opening of the oral cavity into the oropharynx is the ____, defined by two pair of muscular arches on their lateral walls. fauces
The palatine tonsils are embedded in the lateral walls of the ____, between the arches. fauces
The ____ tonsils are at the base of the tongue. lingual
The laryngopharynx starts inferior to hyoid bone and is continuous with the ____ and ____. larynx, esophagus
The CONDUCTING portion of the lower respiratory tract is comprised of the following: ____, ____, ____ and ____ larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles
The RESPIRATORY portion of the lower respiratory tract is comprised of the following: ____ ____, ____ ducts and ____. respiratory bronchioles, alveolar, alveoli
The ____ connects pharynx to trachea. It is also called the voice box. larynx
The larynx has nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Inferior to the vocal cords, it changes to ____ ____ ____ epithelium. pseudostratified ciliated columnar
The three major cartilages of the larynx are: ____ cartilage, ____ cartilage and ____ thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis
Thyroid cartilage is the ____ cartilage. It has an anterior and ____ wall. largest, lateral
Thyroid cartilage is made of ____ cartilage. hyaline
The thyrohyoid membrane is between the superior portion of ____ cartilage and ____ bone. thyroid, hyoid
The v-shaped anterior projection of the thyroid cartilage is called the ____ ___ (Adam’s apple). laryngeal prominence
The laryngeal prominence is usually larger in males than in females because of ____ influence on growth of cartilage. testosterone
Cricoid cartilage is just inferior to the thyroid cartilage, is ____-shaped and composed of ____ cartilage. ring, hyaline
The ____ ligment connects the cricoid cartilage to the thyroid cartilage. cricothyroid
The epiglottis is spoon-shaped and projects superiorly into the pharynx. It is formed of ____ ____. elastic cartilage
Swallowing causes the epiglottis to close the opening to the ____, thus preventing materials from entering the lower respiratory tract. larynx
The mucosa lining the trachea is lined with ____ ____ epithelium and mucin-secreting goblet cells. pseudostratified columnar
The trachea bifurcates into 2 smaller tubes forming the right and left ____ ____. The most inferior tracheal cartilage separates them at their origin and forms an internal ridge called the ____. primary bronchi, carina.
Which primary bronchus enters more vertically? Right or left? right
The bronchial tree is a highly branched system of air-conducting passages that begin with the primary bronchi and end with the terminal bronchi. These passages belong to the ____ portion of the respiratory system. conducting
The bronchial tree passages reside within the substance of the ____. lungs
The trachea branches into left and right ____ ____. primary bronchi
The ____ primary bronchus is wider and more vertical and foreign particles are more likely to get lodged in this bronchus. right
The right primary bronchus divides into three ____ ____. secondary bronchi
The left primary bronchus divides into how many secondary bronchi? two
The secondary bronchi divide into 8–10 ____ ____ or segmental bronchi. tertiary bronchi
As branching continues and the bronchioles become smaller, incomplete rings of cartilage become ____ and less numerous. smaller
All bronchi are lined with ____ ____ epithelium. pseudostratified columnar
Bronchi branch into ____, which lack rings of cartilage and are lined not with pseudostratified columnar epithelium, but with ____ ____ or simple squamous epithelium. bronchioles, simple columnar
Bronchioles are less than 1 mm in diameter and their walls are composed of a relatively thick layer of ____ ____. smooth muscle
Contraction of the smooth muscle in bronchioles result in a narrowing of the bronchioles called ____. bronchoconstriction
Relaxation of the smooth muscle in the bronchioles results in a widening of the bronchioles called ____. bronchodilation
Bronchioles branch into terminal bronchioles, which are the last portions of the ____ portion of the respiratory system. conduction
Terminal bronchioles branch into ____ ____. respiratory bronchioles
Respiratory bronchioles branch into ____ ducts. alveolar
Alveolar ducts end with small saccular outpocketings called ____. alveoli
The thin wall of the ____ is the structure where respiratory gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) diffuse between the blood and the air in the lungs. alveolus
The diameter of the ____ is 0.25 to 0.5mm. alveolus
The thin wall of the alveolus specializes in diffusion of ____. gases
Alveolar pores provide ____ ventilation, and let the alveoli pack together. (spongy look) collateral
Alveolar type I cells are ____ ____ epithelial cells that promote rapid diffusion of gases. simple squamous
Alveolar type II cells are almost cuboidal in shape and produce ____ ____, which decreases surface tension within the alveolus and prevents the collapse of alveoli. pulmonary surfactant
Alveolar macrophages: Fixed or free. They leave the lung either by the ____ system or by coughing of ____. lymphatic, sputum
The ____ ____ is the diffusion barrier across which respiratory gases are exchanged between the blood and the air in the alveoli. respiratory membrane
The respiratory membrane consists of the following: plasma membrane of the type I alveolar cell, plasma membrane of the ____ ____ and fused ____ ____ of both cells. capillary cell, basement membrane
The ____ ____ (dust cell), engulfs any microorganism or particulate matter that makes its way into the alveolus. alveolar macrophage
The lungs are located in pleural cavities on the lateral sides of the thorax and separated by the ____. mediastinum
The pleural cavities and the outer surface of the lung are lined with a serous membrane called ____. pleura
____ pleura tightly adheres to the outside of the lung. Visceral
____ pleura lines the pleural cavity itself. Parietal
The two pleuras are continuous with each other and the space between them is called the ____ ____. pleural cavity
They produce ____ fluid to act as lubricant. serous
The lungs are conical in shape, have a base inferiorly that rests on the ____ and a/an ____ that is the superior most portion of the lung. diaphragm, apex
The lung apex projects just slightly superior and posterior to which bone? clavicle
The lungs’ costal surface comes in contact with the ribs and the slightly concave mediastinal surface faces medially toward the ____. mediastinum
The lungs’ mediastinal surface houses a concave region called the ____. hilum
____, pulmonary vessels, lymphatic vessels, and ____ pass into and out of the lungs in the hilum. Bronchi, nerves
Collectively, all structures within the hilum are termed the ____ of the lung. root
The ____ lung is slightly smaller than the ____ lung because the heart projects slightly to the left of the midline. left, right
The heart makes a medial surface indentation on the left lung called the ____ that has an anterior indented region called the ____ ____. cardiac impression, cardiac notch
The ____ lung has an oblique fissure that divides the lung into two lobes (superior and inferior lobes). left
Which lung has two fissures, oblique and horizontal fissures that divide the lung into three lobes (superior, middle and inferior lobes)? right lung
There are 10 bronchopulmonary segments in the right lung and how many in the left lung? 8–10
Each bronchopulmonary segment is supplied by its own ____ bronchus and a branch of a pulmonary artery and vein. tertiary
Each bronchopulmonary segment is surrounded by and isolated from other segments by connective tissue to ensure that they are ____. autonomous
Pulmonary circulation conducts blood to and from the ____ ____ surfaces of the lungs. gas exchange
The bronchial circulation is a component of the systemic circulation that delivers blood directly to and from the ____ and ____. bronchi, bronchioles
Lymph nodes and vessels are located within the lungs and around the ____ and ____. bronchi, pleura
Lymph nodes collect ____ matter. particulate
Lymph first goes to the ____ lymph nodes within the lungs, then to the ____ lymph nodes at the hilum, then the tracheobronchial lymph nodes and then into the left and right ____ trunks. pulmonary, bronchopulmonary, bronchomediastinal
Breathing, also known as ____ ventilation, is the movement of air into and out of the respiratory system. pulmonary
Adult at rest: ____ breaths per min and ____ml of air exchanged per breath. The movement of gases follows ____ law. 16, 500, Boyle’s
During ____, the volume of the thoracic cavity increases, intrapulmonary pressure decreases, and air flows into the lungs. During ____, the opposite is true. inhalation, exhalation
During inhalation and exhalation, the thoracic cavity changes in 3 dimensions: vertical—movement of the ____, lateral, ____ and ____—muscles attached to ____. diaphragm, anterior, posterior, ribs
The muscles attached to ribs that aid in lateral and anterior/posterior changes of the ribs are: scalene, ____ & ____ intercostal, transverse thoracis and the serratus ____ & ____. external, internal, posterior, inferior
The larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs are under ____ control. autonomic
____ and ____ fibers form the pulmonary plexus, which is a weblike network of nerve fibers that surrounds the primary bronchi and enter the lungs at the hilum. Sympathetic, parasympathetic
Sympathetic (T1-T5) stimulation results in ___. bronchodilation
Parasympathetic (CN X) stimulation results in ____. bronchoconstriction
The respiratory rhythmicity center in the ____ ____ controls the rate and depth of breathing. medulla oblongata
The dorsal respiratory group (DRG) controls inhalation by stimulating ____ of ____. muscles, inspiration
The ventral respiratory group (VRG) controls ____ ____. forced exhalation
The pons houses the ____ center and the ____ center. apneustic, pneumotaxic
Both the apneustic and the pneumotaxic centers influence the breathing rate by modifying the activity of the ____ ____ center. respiratory rhythmicity
The pneumotaxic center is inhibitory to both respiration and the ____ ____. apneustic center
The apneustic center stimulates the ____ center in the medulla. inspiratory
With age, there is a decrease in ____ ____ tissue in the lungs and the thoracic cavity wall. This reduces the amount of gas to be exchanged and decreases ventilation rate. elastic connective
Emphysema may cause loss of ____ or decrease in size. alveoli
Created by: BrandiLynn
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