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AP II TEST

FINAL

QuestionAnswer
The buffy coat of blood contains ___ and ___. platelets, leukocytes
Dehydration means decreased ___ in the blood. plasma
*% of water in plasma. 92
The smallest and most abundant plasma proteins are ___. albumins
The concentration of dissolved oxygen in blood is higher than it is in ___ ___. interstitial fluid
An erythrocyte is a formed element, not technically a cell because it lacks a ___ and ___. nucleus, organelles
How many globins are found in a single hemoglobin molecule? 4
___ ___ ___ occurs when destruction of RBCs is more rapid than normal due to a genetic defect. Congenital hemolytic anemia
Characteristics of type A blood: contains antigen ___ and anti-___ bodies. A, B
Leukocytes are ___ to ___ times larger than an erythrocyte. They prepare against ___ response, and defend against ___. Their life span is ___ hours to many ___, and their density is ___ to ___ per cubic millimeter of blood. 1.5-3, immune, antigens, 12 hours to years, 4,500-11,000
A/an ___ is a leukocyte that releases histamine. basophil
A leukocyte very active during bacterial infection is a/an ___. neutrophil
A leukocyte that will migrate in blood and become a macrophage is a/an ___. monocyte
___ is a growth factor that increases the formation of erythrocytes. multi-csf
Leukocytes derived from myeloid line: ___, basophils, ___, monocytes neutrophils, eosinophils
Blood flow to human body is by ___, vessels in the ___ circulation and the chamber of the ___ side of the heart. arteries, systemic, left
Deoxygenated blood is carried in the ___ circuit. pulmonary
The base of the heart is the ___ atrium. left
The ___ is a visceral layer of serous pericardium surrounding the outer walls of the heart. epicardium
The function of serous fluid is to ___. lubricate
The ___ ___ in cardiac muscle is less extensive and not as organized as in skeletal muscle. sarcoplasmic reticulum
Cardiac muscle has no ___ ___, while skeletal muscle does. terminal cisternae
Cardiac muscle lacks the extensive association of smooth muscle reticulum and ___ ___ present in skeletal muscle. transverse tubules (T-tubules)
In cardiac muscle ___ overlie ___ ___, instead of junctions of A bands and I bands as in skeletal muscle. T-tubules, Z discs
Less extensive T-tubules and reduced association with SER in cardiac muscle allow delayed ___ and prolonged ___ of cardiac muscle tissue onset, contraction
The coronary sulcus separates the ___ and the ___ externally. atria, ventricles
Closure of the right atrioventricular valve is caused by the ___ of the right ventricle. contraction
*The ___ ___ attach to the lower surface of cusps of the right AV valve and prevent the valve from everting and flipping into the atrium when the right ventricle is contracting. chordae tendineae
At the beginning of the cardiac cycle, the atria ___. contract
During ventricular diastole ___ valves close and ___ valves open. semilunar, atrioventricular
The “lubb” sound comes from ___ ___ closing. atrioventricular valves
The EKG P wave is generated when atria ___. depolarize
cardiac arrhythmia ventricular fibrillation
___ ___ of the heart arises from the T1-T5 segments of the spinal cord and increases the rate and force of heart contractions. Sympathetic innervation
What hormone pairs have antagonistic (opposite) effects? calcitonin, parathyroid hormone
Where are the target cells for antidiuretic hormone? kidney tubules and smooth muscle of arteriole walls
Which hormones are collectively called the gonadotropins? ___-___ and ___ hormone. Follicle-stimulating, luteinizing
Which hormone is secreted by the pineal gland? melatonin
The hormone that increases the rate of glycogen breakdown and glucose release by the liver is ___. glucagon
Which endocrine gland is paired (meaning that there are two in the body)? adrenal
Which hormone is secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas? insulin
In response to high blood glucose, the pancreas releases insulin to enable glucose to enter body cells. When the blood glucose level returns to normal, insulin release stops. This is an example of regulation by ___ ___. negative feedback
The release of hormones from the adrenal medulla is stimulated by the ___ division of the ___ ___ system. sympathetic, autonomic nervous
Which hormones are formed from chains of amino acids? peptides
The "master control center" of the endocrine system is the ___. hypothalamus
Epinephrine and norepinephrine are secreted by ___ cells. chromaffin
Which hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary is not a tropic hormone? ___-___ hormone. melanocyte-stimulating
The hormones secreted by the thymus gland are ___ and ___. thymopoietin, thymosins
Thyroid hormone synthesis involves secretion of a glycoprotein called ___ by the follicular cells. thyroglobulin
In addition to secreting hormones, the pancreas also produces ___ ___. pancreatic juice
Which region of the adrenal cortex synthesizes glucocorticoids? zona fasciculata
Which is going to result in significant agglutination? A) Donor Type AB, Recipient Type B B) Donor Type A, Recipient Type AB C) Donor Type O, Recipient Type O D) Donor Type B, Recipient has antibody anti-A E) Donor Type A, Recipient has antibody anti-B A) Donor Type AB, Recipient Type B
How many globins (protein building blocks) are found in a single hemoglobin molecule? 2, 1, 6, 4, or 8 4
Which type of leukocyte increases in number because of the presence of an allergen? Neutrophil Basophil Eosinophil Lymphocyte Monocyte Basophil
An individual's hematocrit is dependent on his or her A) Three of the choices are correct B) Sex C) Age D) Two of the choices are correct E) Altitude A) Three of the choices are correct
The "buffy" coat of the middle layer of a centrifuged blood sample is composed of: ____ and ____: leukocytes, platelets
The growth factor that increases the formation of erythrocytes, all classes of granulocytes, monocytes, and platelets from myeloid stem cells is: G-CSF M-CSF EPO GM-CSF Multi-CSF Multi-CSF
The largest arteries of the body are classified as _____ arteries. elastic
Vasoconstriction of the arterioles will result in an increase or decrease in blood pressure? increase
The left renal vein, right renal vein, right suprarenal vein, and right gonadal vein merge directly into the _____ _____ _____? inferior vena cava
Which veins carry blood from the liver to the inferior vena cava? _____ hepatic
Typically, there are _____ left and _____ right pulmonary veins to carry the oxygenated blood to the left atrium. two, two
A network of small arteries called the _____ _____ provides a blood supply to the tunica externa of very large vessels. vasa vasorum
The artery pair that supplies the lower limbs are the _____ _____ _____. external iliac arteries
True or false? The umbilical arteries carry deoxygenated blood. true
The ____ ____ is a lymphocyte that produces and secretes antibodies. plasma cell
The composition of lymph is most similar to ____ ____. blood plasma
B-lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the ____ ____ ____. red bone marrow
The thoracic duct and the right lymphatic duct empty lymph into the ____ veins. subclavian
Helper T-lymphocytes are also known as CD___ cells. Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes are called CD___ cells. 4+, 8+
Which are components of the lymphatic system? a: Thyroid gland b: Spleen c: Red bone marrow d: Thymus gland e: Lymph nodes f: Tonsils b, c, d, e, f
Which of the lymphatic trunks drain into the cisterna chyli? ____ and ____ trunks intestinal, lumbar
The spleen lacks a cortex and ____. medulla
T-lymphocytes in the thymus gland do not participate in the immune response and are protected from antigens by the ____-____ ____. blood-thymus barrier
The location of the trachea-lies ___ to the esophagus, ___ to the larynx, and ___ to the primary bronchi of the lungs anterior, inferior, superior
Following an automobile accident, a broken rib penetrates into the pleural cavity causing blood to accumulate in the space between the visceral and parietal pleura. This condition is known as a/an hemothorax
What structures actually produce sound? vocal folds
The alveolar cell that secretes pulmonary surfactant is the ___ ___ ___ cell alveolar type II cell
The hilum of the lung is an indented area through which the bronchi, pulmonary vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves pass. true or false true
The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air and blood in the lungs is called ___ ___. external respiration
Which is not part of the conducting portion of the respiratory system? Nasal cavity, Trachea, Alveoli, Bronchi, Larynx Alveoli
Which center inhibits the activity of the dorsal respiratory group (DRG)? pneumotaxic center
Which center stimulates inspiration by increasing the activity of the dorsal respiratory group (DRG)? Apneustic center
Which region(s) of the pharynx are lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium? A)Oropharynx, nasopharynx, and laryngopharynx B)Laryngopharynx C)Oropharynx D)Oropharynx and nasopharynx E)Nasopharynx E)Nasopharynx
What structure prevents food and drink from entering the trachea, conducts air, and produces sound? larynx
On each side of the chest, the ___ pleura lines the internal thoracic wall and the ___ pleura tightly covers the lung. parietal, visceral
Created by: Falicon