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Radiation Protection

Radiation Protection Final Review

Well- oxygenated rapidly dividing cells are _______ sensitive to damage by radiation. very sensitive
Atoms that have the same number of protons w/in the nucleus but a different number of neutrons isotopes
What instrument should be used to locate a lost radioactive source or to detect low-level radioactive contamination? Geiger-Muller
What instruments can be used to calibrate radiographic and fluorscopic equipment? ionization chambers
What is an advantage of the cutie-pie? able to measure a wide range of radiation exposures within a few seconds
This monitoring device can descriminate between x-radiationa and gamma and beta radiation film badge
This monitring device is not affected by humidity, pressure, or normal temp changes, can be worn for up to 3 months, but does not serve as a permanent record of exposure thermoluminescent dosimeter
This monitoring device can not be used for procedures that are short pocket ionization chamber
These record whole-body radiation exposure accumulated at a low rate over a long period of time. film badge
The term optimization for radiatio protection is synonymous with the term: ALARA-as low as reasonably achievable
the degree to which the diagnostic study accurately reveals the presence or absence of disease in the patient. diagnostic efficacy
the main adverse health effect from Chernobyl increase of thyroid cancerin children and adolescents
1 sievert= _____ rem 100 rem
International System of Units (SI), unit of equivalent dose sievert
traditional unit of equivalent dose rem
2 examples of ionizing radiation x and gamma
equivalent dose only applies to ________ radiation ionizing
compared with beta particles, alpha particles are <more/less> penetrating less
blood changes occur at ____ Sv, which is equivalent to ____rem .25 Sv/ 25 rem
transference of electromagnetic energy to the atoms of the material absorption
amount of energy absorbed per unit mass absorbed dose
the emerging x-ray photon is collectively referred to as: primary radiation
a reduction in the number of primary photons in the x-ray beam through absorption and scatter as the beam passes through the object in its path attenuation
the photons that emerge from an object and strike the IR below it exit, image formation, photons
2 types of interaction that are important in diagnostic radiology compton scattering and photoelectric absorption
some short term somatic effects nausea, fatigue, loss of hair, fever, blood disorders, intestinal disorders, diffused redness of skin, shedding of outer layer of skin
long term or late somatic effects cancer, embryologic effects, formation of cataracts
a dose of radiation below which an individual has a negligible chance of sustaining specific biologic damage threshold dose
short term somatic effects appear __________ within minutes, hours, days or weeks of the time of exposure
internationally accepted unit for measurement of exposure to x-radiation and gamma radiation Roentgen
radiation-equivalent man rem
SI unit for absorbbed dose and its traditional equivalent gray (Gy) and rad
When designing the thickness of protective barriers, the inverse square law applies to the factor of which of the following? . Distance
What is the recommended cumulative whole-body effective dose equivalent limit? Age in years multiplied by 10 mSv (1000 mrem)
To what type of radiation exposure does the EDE system apply? Occupational exposure and exposure of the general public
What is the effective dose equivalent for occupants of controlled areas? Less than 1000 microsieverts (100 mR)/week
Isoexposure profiles during fluoroscopy show the need for which of the following? Bucky slot covers and protective curtains
. Why are secondary barriers always given a use factor of 1? Scatter radiation and leakage radiation are always present when the tube is energized.
What is the EDE limit during pregnancy? 5 mSv (500 mrem)
What are primary protective barriers designed to protect against? Primary or useful beam radiation
. In determining barrier thickness, what does the use factor or beam direction factor represent? The fractional amount of time the primary beam is energized and directed at a barrier
In the design of protective structural shielding, what type of radiation is most hazardous and most difficult to protect against? Primary radiation
The normal process by which somatic sells proliferate is termed: mitosis
The symptoms of fever and malaise associated with a reduced number of leukocytes is one of the major characteristics of the ___________ syndrome. hematologic syndrome
The most sensitive phase of the normal cell cycle occurs during the _________ phase. middle of the M-phase
erythema redness of the skin
period of major organogenesis occurs during the __ of fetal development 2nd to 8th week
most sensitive organs to the effects of 200 rems of rad exposure testes and ovaries
cells that have a specialized function and are in the final stage of their maturation process differentiated cells
what are the first signs of ARS Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea
A change in the normal proliferation or reproductive rate of a group of cells is called ________. mitotic delay
A direct effect usually refers to a ___________ caused by x-ray photon or other form of high-energy radiation. point mutation on a DNA molecule
Th emost common symptoms accompanying the gastrointestinal syndrome are: dehydrationa and vomiting
a common by product resulting from the irradiation of water in a living cell is a bleach called ______ hydrogen peroxide
energy from ionizing radiation is transferred from a directly ionized molecule to another molecule that is not directly ionized is called indirect hit theory
In an otherwise healthy person, somatic damage to radiation is approximately ____ % repairable when small exposures are received in fractioned doses 90%
period in which effect of exposure are hidden latent
period of an acute exposure to radiation in which the effects of the exposure are apparent manifest
the majority of damage to the body from radiation exposure results from the ________ effect indirect
epilation loss of hair
A patient receives an estimated exposure f 3000 millirad of x-rays...what is his person's dose equivalent? 3000 millirem
Air kerma is employed to equate the exposure to radiation traditionally measured by the _______(how is it expressed?) roentgen and expressed in units of gray
A person is exposed to 200 rad of beta having a quality factor of 2. This person's dose equivalency is _____. 400 rem
A pt is exposed to 95 rad of 1 MeV neutrons having a QF of 6. This person's dose equivalency is ______. 570 rem
primary difference between a Geiger-Muller detector and a cutie pie is: the voltage impressed on the ionization chamber
Luxel badges detect radiation through a process called __________. optically stimulated luminosity
the smallest exposure that is detectable through the use of a standard film type personnel monitoring device is approximately _____. 10 mrem
the smallest radiation exposure that can be detected by a biological method is approx _____mrem 25,000 mrem
principle active component of a thermoluminescent dosimeter is a special crystal called lithium fluoride
the roentgen is most closely related to __ radiation primary
the short interval of time during which a radiation counter is unable to respond to radiation exposure is called _______. dead time
a 200 rem exposure is equivalent to _____sieverts 2 Sv
the linear energy transfer (LET) of an x-ray or gamma photon is low because of its ____ . high penetration
<Alpha, Beta, Gamma> possesses the greatest threat to the internal organs from an external exposure gamma
the traditional unit of absorbed dose is equivalent to an energy transfer of 100 ergs per gram of any matter and is termed the ____. rad
the standard international unit for measurement of absorbed dose for all types of ionizing radiation is the _______. gray
the curie is the traditional unit used to express the ________________. activity of a radioactive material
the principle source of scatter during fluoroscopy comes from ______. the patient
primary barriers should have a thickness of _____mm lead ( ") 1.5 mm lead (1/16")
an exposure switch on a mobile radiographic unit should be long enough to allow the radiographer to remain _____cm/______m/______ft away 200 cm/2 m/6 ft
a secondary barrier must have a lead equivalency of ____mm lead ( ") .75 mm lead (1/32")
the protective lead required around the average x-ray tube is _____mm 1.5 (tube is exposed to primary radiation making it a primary barrier)
after a radioisotope is injected into the body, the rate at which it is expelled by the body is termed the _______ biologic half- life
a radioactive source has a half life of 8 hours. how long would it take to reduce a 400 millicurie/hr source to a level of 50 millicurie/hr 24 hours
as the atomic number of a substance increases, the half value thickness <increases, decreases, stays the same> decreases (more radiation is attenuated, the half value decreases)
the fraction of time that a radiation beam is directed at a specific barrier or area is termed use factor
minimum source to skin distance 12"
an x-ray machine operating above 70 kVp requires at least ______mm aluminum of tube filtration 2.5 mm
a gonadal shield with a .5 mm lead equivalent is able to attenuate approximately ____% of the incident x-rays for a 75 kVp beam 88%
radiographer's annual dose limit under ALARA 5 mSv (.5 rem) per year
embryo-fetus exposure should not exceed ______/month .5 mSv (.05 rem)
for a fixed fluoroscopic unit, the source to skin distance should not be less than ______" 15"
the effective dose limits are based on what type of dose relationship? linear, non-threshold
according to the NCRP, the air kerma at the level of the pt during fluoroscopy, shall not exceed ________/min 10 cGy (10 rad) per min
two most common filtering materials used for filtration of a diagnostic x-ray beam aluminum and Lucite
What does the dose equivalent allow us to calculate? The effective absorbed dose of all types of ionizing radiation
What is the National Council on Radiation Protection monthly radiation effective dose equivalent limit for radiation workers? 0.5 mSv
In radiation from a diagnostic x-ray, a measurement of 0.01 sievert is equal to which of the following? 1 rem
The dose equivalent is calculated by multiplying the absorbed dose by which of the following? A quality factor
What is the SI unit that refers to the amount of ionizing radiation that may strike an object such as the human body when in the vicinity of a radiation source? Coulombs per kilogram
The effective dose is calculated using which of the following? A tissue weighting factor
What unit of measurement is defined as the amount of energy per unit of mass absorbed by the irradiated object? Gray
How is surface integral exposure calculated? Exposure times the area of the radiation beam
Created by: kristinalyn