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Chapter One

social psyc

Social Influence The effect that the words, actions, or mere presense of other people have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behavior
Social Psychology The scientific study of the way in which people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influences by the real or imagined presence of other people Affect Behavior Cognition
Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to overestimate the extent to which people's behavior is due to internal, dispositional factors, and to underestimate the role of the situational factors
Individual Differences The aspects of peoples personalities that make people different from other people
Construal The way in which people perceive, comprehend, and interpret the social world
Behaviorism A school of psychology maintaining that to understand human behavior, one need only consider the reinforcing properties of the environment- that is, how positive and negative events in the environment are associated with specific behaviors
Gestalt Psychology A school of psychology stressing the importance of studying the subjective way in which an object appears in people's minds rather than the objective, physical attributes of the object
Self-Esteem People's evaluations of their own self-worth- that is, the extent to which they view themselves as good, competent, and decent
Social Cognition How people think about themselves and the social world: more specifically, how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information to make judgements and decisions
Social psychology is not concerned with social situations in any objective sense, but with how people are influenced by their construal of the social environment
One problem with relying entirely on folk wosdom such as " birds of a feather flock together" is that more often than not, sayings from folk wisdom disagree with one another
In the study by Ross in which Stanford University students played a game called the Wall Street Game or Community Game, Ross found that when the name Wall Street Game was used approximately ____ of the students played competitively two-thirds
Psychologists interested in the effects of different personality traits on aggressive behavior are referred to as personality psychologists
Why is it difficult for social psychologists to convince people that their behavior is greatly influenced by the social environment? because people are inclined to commit the fundamental attribution in explaining behavior
Behavioral psychologists like Watson and Skinner believed that all humans could be understood by explaining rewards and punishments in the individual's environments
Research on hazing shows that members like a group better if they had endured unpleasant procedures to get into the group if they had not. These findings are best accounted for by self-justification
According to the social cognition approach people try to view the world as accurately as possible; people do their best to understand and predict the social world; coming up with an accurate picture of the social world is often difficult
Social psychologist are primarily concerned that their ideas about human social behavior withstand empirical testing
Sociologists focus on _____ for explanations of human behavior whereas social psychologists focus on ____ for such explanations society; the individual
When we commit the fundamental attribution error in explaining people's behavior, we ____ the power of personality traits and ___the power of social influence overestimate;underestimate
By emphasizing the way in which people construe the social world, social psychology has its direct roots more in the tradition of___ than in behaviorism Gestalt psychology
Whereas the ___approach emphasizes that behavior is motivated by the desire to feel good about ourselves, the ___approach emphasizes the need to be accurate self-esteem; social cognition
Researchers who attempt to understand social behavior from the perspective of social cognition assume that we try to view the world as accurately as possible
u expect that ppl @ a party wont enjoy ur company. Consequently, u spare them the misery of talking w y by being brief cutting short their conversations with u. Later u learn that ur company wasnt enjoyed. Wht social phenomenon has occurred self-fulfilling prophecy
Which of the following is NOT an example of social Influence A friend tends to be optimistic and views situations in a positive light
Conflicting answers to questions about basic human nature are most likely to be found in folk wisdom and philosophy
Which question about aggression is a sociologist most likely to ask? what is it about a particular society that produces aggression in its members
a personality psychologist interested in studying happiness would most likely wonder whether some people are generally happier than others
Rather than study how the physical attributes of an object combine to form an impression, Gestalt psychologists study people's subjective perception of the whole object
To determine the origin of a construal, social psychologist look to basic human motives
According to social psychologists, an individual's behavior is a given situation is best predicted from knowing: how that individual construes the present situation
When people observe others behaving in a given situation, they tend to jump to the conclusion that the person rather than they situation caused the behavior. In this, people are most like a personality psychologist
Which would be most likely to claim that people blindly follow leaders because they are reinforced for such compliance behavioral psychologists
According to Gestalt psychology "The whole is different from the sum of its parts"
When the need to feel good about oneself clashes with the need to be accurate, people tent to put a slightly different spin on the facts so that they are seen in the best possible light
A social psychologist notices that a large number of her students report getting nervous when they have to give presentations in class. In trying to determine the causes of this emotional reaction, the social psychologist will tend to examine the situational factors that could lead to this emotional reaction
Which two basic human motives do social psychologist focus on the most the desire to maintain one's self esteem and the desire to view the world as accurate as possible
What is true about Kurt Lewin He applied Gestalt principles to social perception
Rosenthal and Jacobson's study in which students identified as "bloomers" illustrates that expectations have profound impact on social behavior and perception
Identifying universal properties of human nature that make everyone susceptible to social influence, regardless of social class or culture is the goal of social psychology
One of the goals of social psychologists is to make educated guesses called____about the specific situations under which one outcome or the other would occur hypotheses
In the study by Ross in which Stanford University students played a game the Wall Street Game or the Community Game, Ross found the ____ determined whether the student played competitively or cooperatively name of the game
Rosenthal and Jacobson's study in which students were labeled as "bloomers" illustrated which of the following self-fulfilling prophecy
In addition to the need to maintain a positive view of ourselves and the need to view the world accurately, which of the following is also a source of construals need for control
What makes the predicting behavior so challenging for social psychologists psychologist are attempting to predict the behavior of highly sophisticated organisms in a variety of complex situations
The creativity and analytical thinking of_____ are a major part of the foundation of contemporary psychology philosophers
Behaviorists choose not to deal with cognition; thinking; feeling
The process of denial stems from the need to maintain self-esteem
A special kinds of construal is what Lee Ross calls____=the conviction all of use have that we perceive things that they really are naive construal
Created by: aelayan21