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Ch 40 - Urologic

Urologic Disorders

some nonelectrolyte substances that are not reabsorbed by the tubules include uric acid, urea, and ________ creatinine
reabsorption of water by the tubules occirs through the process of _____________. osmosis
the end product of glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption is_______________. urine
substances secreted by the tubules are called _________________. ions
the amount of water reabsorbed in the kidneys is influenced by antidiuretic hormone and ___________________. aldosterone
urine is moved from the kidney to the bladder by means of _____________. peristalsis
causes reabsorption of water in the renal tubules, decreasing urine volume. antidiuretic hormone
is released in response to inadequate renal blood flow or low arterial pressure renin
the hormone secreted in the kidneys that stimulates the bone marrow to produce red blood cells erythropoietin
with normally functioning kidneys, the serum creatine level is _______________. very low
_______________ is a general indicator of the kidney's ability to excrete ureal values are raised by high-protein diets, gastrointestinal bleeding, dehydration and some drugs BUN
a better measurement of kidney functioning than the BUN because it is elevated only in kidney disorders is ___________________-. creatine clearance
with normally functioning kidneys, the urine creating level is _____________. high
the best test of overall kidney function is _________________. creatine clearance
two tests that are compared to each other and that should be opposite each other if kidneys are functioning normally are the creatine clearance and the _____________. urine culture
measures the rate of urine flow during voiding urodynamic study
outlines the contour of the bladder and show reflux of urine cystogram
the backward movement of urine from the bladder into the ureters reflux
dye is injected IV, radiographs of kidney, ureters, and bladder are taken; used to assess kidney function intravenous pyelogram
a catherter is inserted into the bladder, dye is injected, and radiographs are taken cystogram
used to elvaluate bladder tone in the patient with incontinence or with neurogenic bladder cystometrogram
a condition in which calculi are formed in the kidneys nephrolithiasis
diagnostic tests that confirm the presence and location of calculi in the urinary tract ultrasound IVP KUB
inflammation of the renal pelvis pyelonephritis
hereditary disorder in which grapelike cysts replace normal kidney tissue polycystic kidney disease
removal of a calculus lithotomy
removal of calculus from the renal pelvis pyelithotomy
inflammation of the urinary bladder cystitis
a urinalysis is done in patients with glomerulonephritis to detect red blood cell cast and : proteinuria
intense, colicky pain of the renal calculi may be relieved by narcotic analgesics and ? antispasmodics
formation of calculi in the kidneys is called? urolithiasis
possible complications of lithotripsy are: bruising hemorrhage
inflammation of the capillary loops in the glomeruli is? glomerulonephritis
removal of a kidney nephrectomy
a noninvasive procedure to break up calculi lithotripsy
removal of the bladder cystectomy
an incision made to open the bladder cystotomy
a surgical procedure that reroutes the flow of urine urinary diversion
can be caused by the accumulation of calcium phosphate crystals and urea in the skin itching
following the removal of a kidney, the condition in which peristalsis does not return within 3-4 days is called paralytic ileus
when a calculus obstructs urine flow, the urine may back up into the kidney, causing______________. hydronephrosis
the placement of a tube in the kidney so that urine may drain through the tube into an external collection device is called __________. nephtostomy
in patients with hydronephrosis, urine is usually strained and examined for ____________. calculi
distention of the kidney with urine is called ________________. hydronephrosis
_____________ is the most often noted around the mouth, is a very late sign of chronic renal failure urenuc frost
most patients with chronic renal failure retain water and _________. sodium
emotional responses to chronic renal failure include depression, disturbed body image and _____________, anxiety
ovulation and _______________ usually cease ub females with chronic renal failure menstruation
the skeletal changes characteristic of chronic renal failure are known as ____________________ renal osteodystrophy
a high diet in carbohydrates and low in protein is prescribed to reduce the accumulation of ________________. urea
the condition in which calcium is lost from bones and replaced with fibrous tissue osteitis fibrosa
related to endocrine function, patients with chronic renal failure usually have ___________. hypothyroidism
the effects of chronic renal failure on the male reproductive syste typically include low sperm counts and ___________. impotence
the passage of molecules through a semipermeable membrane into a special solution dialysis
a "______________" is a rippling sensation palpable on the venous side of the cannula or fistula thrill
leading cause of death in hemodialysis patients is? CVA MI
vascular access sites must be assessed for _____________. hemodialysis
______________ allows a patient to have dailysis performed at night by a machinem giving the patient freedom during the day and reducing the risk of infection automated peritoneal dialysis/cycler
a rushing, roaring, or "swoosh" noise heard through the stethoscope with each heartbeat is known as a ___________. bruit
allows the patient freedom from a macine and the independence to perform dialysis alone continous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
major complications of peritoneal dialisis peritonitis
examination of voided urine specimen for pH, blood, glucose and protein urinalysis
clean-catch or midstream urine specimen is collected to determine which antibiotics will be effective against the specific organisms found in the culture urine sensitivity
collection of urine for 12-24hr, which is an estimate of the glomerular filtration rate creatinine clearance
blood test that is a general indicator of the kidney's ability to excrete waste BUN
a blood test that may show elevated Na and K levels and decreased Ca levels which indicate renal failure serumm electrolytes
dull flank pain calculus in renal pelvis
excruciating abdominal pain that radiates to the groin or perineum calculus in ureter
Age-related changes: function of kidneys are: usually maintained
Age-related changes: adaptation of kidneys under stress: does not adapt well
Age-related changes: number of nephrons: loss and thinckens of membranes
Age-related changes: renal blood vessesls results in: sclerosis
Age-related changes: renal blood flow: declines
Age-related changes: glomerular filtration rate: declines
Age-related changes: plasma renin and aldosterone levels: falls
Age-related changes: antidiuretic hormones effect on tubules: are less responsive
Age-related changes: kidney's ability to concentrate and dilute urine: less able to
Age-related changes: creatinine clearance rate: decrease
Age-related changes: incidences of nocturia: often occurs
Age-related changes: bladder muscle: weaken
Age-related changes: connective tissue in the bladder: increases
Age-related changes: capacity of bladder: decreases
Age-related changes: emptying function of bladder: is incomplete
straw colored urine? normal and slightly acidic
bright red urine? gross hematuria in acid urine
tea-colored urine? gross hematuria in alkaline urine
coludy or hazy urine? bacteria, pus, small amount of blood
colorless urine? overhydration diabetes insipudus DM CRF
four symptoms of an allergic reaction to iodine dye: itchy hives wheezing respiratory distress
four signs of blood loss for patients with kidney disease returning from angiography: tachycardia dyspnea restlessness abdonminal/flank pain
glomerular filtrate and blood plasma are essentially the same, except that the filtrate does not have: proteins
as the blood passes through the glomerulus, which element is too large to pass through the semipermeable membrane? plasma protein
the normal pH of urine is: 4.5-8.0
the body normally excretes how many liters of urine per day? 1-2 liters
two substances that are present in blood but not normally in urine are: glucose and protein
glomerular damage may be indicated by the presence of which of the following in the urine? protein
the presence of how much urine usually caises the urge to urinate? 200-400mL
voiding is primarily controlled by: voluntary muscles
a hormone that helps maintain normal serum calcium and phosphate levels is: parathormone
blood pressure is regulated through fluid volume maintaince and release of the hormone: renin
a change in blood volume will resule in a change in: BP
decreased oxygen in renal blood triggers the secretion of: erythoropoietin
patients in renal failure have a deficiency of erythropoietin, which causes them to have: anemia
a common age related problem in males related to the urinary system is: urethral obstruction
if crystals on the skin are observed during examination of patients with urinary disorders, this is recorded as: uremic frost
tissue turgur is evaluated in patients with urinary disorders to detect: dehydration
the eyes of patients with urinary disorders are examined for periorbital edema, the presence of which would suggests: fluid retention
if patients with urinary disorders have dyspnea, this may be a sign of: fluid overload
if patients with urinary disorders have an odor of urine on their breath, this may indicate: kidney failure
swishing sounds caused by the turbulence of blood are called: bruits
an indication of renal artery stenosis is: bruits
the edema found in renal failure is described as: generalized
in patients with renal failure, the skin over edematous areas is likely to be described as: dry and flushed
inspection of the genitalia during the examination of patients with urinary disorders must always be done utilizing: standard precautions
normal urine is: straw-colored
urine with cloudy appearance may be indicative of: bacterial infection
normally, urine is sterile and slightly: acidic
a diagnostic test for the identification of microorganisms present in urine is: urine culture
the best test of overall kidney function, which is an estimate of glomerular filtration rate is: creatinine clearance
after a renal biopsy, what is the most important side effect to watch for? bleeding
which blood test needs to be within normal limits before a renal biopsy is performed? clotting studies
following cystoscopy, at first, the urine will be: pink-tinged
following cystoscopy, urine should lighten to its usual color within: 24-48 hrs
following cystoscopy, belladonna and opium suppositories may be ordered to reduce: bladder spasms
bladder perforation is rare following cystoscopy, but is may be indicated by severe: abdominal pain
the major concern with catheterization is the potential for: infection
to measure residual volume, the patient must be catheterized immediately after voiding, which is ab abnormal finding? 75mL <50ml is normal
following uroloci surgery, which of the following outputs should be reported to the physician? <30mL/hr
the most common nosocomial infections are: UTI
most UTIs are caused by: bacteria
dysuria, frequency, urgency, and bladder spasms are common symptoms of: urethritis
the passage of renal calculi is facilitated by: ambulation hydration
the pain of urethritis may be reduced by: sitz baths
a common symptom of pyelonephritis is: flank pain
when forcing fluids on patients with pyelonephritis, the nurse needs to be careful to prevent: circulatory overload
an older patient with phelonephritis who experiences a suddenly increased fluid volume may develop: CHF
the most common type of glomerulonephritis follows a respiratory tract infection caused by: streptococcus
in addition to antibiotics, acute glomerulonephritis is treated medically with: diuretics and antihypertensives
in the acute phase of glomerulonephritis, bed rest is ordered to prevent or treat heart failure and severe hypertension that result from: fluid overload
a common nursing diagnosis for patients with acute glomerulonephritis is: excess fluid volume
the incidence of uric acid stones is high among: jewish males
when a person is dehydratedm the kidneys conserve water, causing urine to be: concentrated
a diet that can contribute to calculus formation is one that is hight in purines and: calcium
in order to prevent renal calculim the nurse should teach patients to: have a high fluid intake
a major nursing concern for patients with renal calculi is: pain relief
the treatment of choice for renal cancer is: radial nephrectomy
shattering of calculis lithripsy
the location of the flank incision following nephrectomy causes pain with expansion of the: thorax
when patients after nephtectomy protect the chest by not breathing deeply, this leads to the development of: atelectasis & pneumonia
the most common malignancy of the urinary tract is: bladder cancer
the most frequent symptom of bladder cancer is intermittent: hematuria
when the blaffer is removed completely, urinary diversion is somethimes provided which allows urine to be excreted through the: ileal conduit
peoperative care for an ileal or sigmoid conduit includes thorough preparation of the intestinal tract, which includes administration of an antibiotic that is not absorbed from the intestinal tract, called: neomycin
an effective means of assessing changes in fluid status of patients in acute renal failure is: recording I
when 90-95% of kidney function is lost, the patient is considered to be in: CRF
the most life-threatening effect of renal failure is: hyperkalemia
when a kidney donor is obtained from a living related donor, the 1-year survival rate for tranplantation is about: 95-97%
to control the body's response to foreign tissue, the transplant recipient is given: immunosuppresants
specific nursing diagnoses related to possibility of organ rejection after renal transplantation may include: anxiety
signs of dehydration in the patient who has had a renal transplant may include: low BP thready pulse, poor tissue tugor
complications of lithotripsy include: bruising and hemorrhage
which procedure is contraindicated in patients with known renal insufficiency or DM? IVP
an 88 yr old female was seen in the clinic 3x last yr for kidney infections. age related factors that may be contributing to these frequent infections include: weak, ineffective contration of trigonal muscles
a patient tells you she has a painful, burning sensation during urination. you shuld record this symptom as: dysuria
the first time a patient voids after cystoscopy, you notice the urine is pink-tinged. you: recognize that this is normal
the primary cause of health care associated infections is: catheterization
patient teaching to reduce the risk of cystitis in women should include: drink a glass of water before and after intercourse
glomerulonephritis is caused by: immunologic proccesses
ta procedure that uses sound, laser or dry shock wave energy to break up renal calculi is: lithotripsy
the maximum amount of fluid that can be used to irrigate a nephrostomy tube is: 5mL
after a nephrectomy, a patient's urine output was 25mL in the past hour. You should: notify the physician that the patient's urine output is low
a patient with chronic kidney disease becomes confused. he complains of nausea, abdominal cramps, and lack of sensation in his legs. his heart rhythm is irregular. you should suspect: hyperkalemia
Created by: jleycomiller