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Ch.7/MED126

The Muscular System

QuestionAnswer
Four organ systems that are essential for the proper functioning of the muscular system are the? Skeletal, respiratory, circulatory, and nervous
The organ system that carries carbon dioxide away from contracting muscles is the? Circulatory system
The organ system that transmits impulses for contraction to muscles is the? Nervous system
The organ system that is moved by muscle is the? Skeletal system
The organ system that ensures adequate oxygen intake for muscles is the? Respiratory system
Muscles are attached to bones by? Tendons
Tendons are made of? Fibrous connective system
The fibers of a tendon merge with the? Fascia of a muscle and the periosteum of a bone
The more stationary attachment of a muscle to a bone is called the? Origin
The more movable attachment of a muscle to a bone is called the? Insertion
Muscles with opposite functions are called? Antagonists
Muscles with the same or similar function are called? Synergists
When a muscle contracts, its specific action is to? Pull a bone
Muscles that move the lower leg must cross the? Knee joint
Muscles that move the forearm must cross the? Elbow joint
The state of slight contraction present in healthy muscle is called? Muscle tone
The state of slight contraction present in healthy muscles is called muscle tone, and depends on? Nerve impulses
About 25% of the body's heat at rest is produced by the? Muscle tone of the skeletal muscles
Exercise that involves contraction with movement is called? Isotonic
Exercise that involves contraction without movement is called? Isometric
Having a mental picture of where our muscles are is called? Muscle sense
The sensory receptors in muscles are called? Stretch receptors
Stretch receptors information is essential for? Muscle sense
The contraction of skeletal muscles is initiated by the? Frontal lobes of the cerebrum
What part of the brain coordinates the actions of skeletal muscles? Cerebellum
Conscious muscle sense is a function of the? Parietal lobes of the cerebrum
The integration of unconscious muscle sense is a function of the? Cerebellum
The direct energy source for muscle contraction is? ATP
Two indirect energy sources for muscle contraction are? Creatine phosphate and glycogen
The most abundant energy source for muscle contraction is? Glycogen
In muscles, the waste product creatinine comes from? Creatine phosphate
Creatine phosphate is excreted by the? Kidneys
The simple reaction of cell respiration is: Glucose+Oxygen converted to Carbon Dioxide+Water+Heat+ATP
In cell respiration, what is waste product is produced? Carbon dioxide
In cell respiration, what is produced for muscle contraction? ATP
In cell respiration, what is produced to contribute to body temperature? Heat
In muscles, oxygen is stored by? Myoglobin
The iron-containing protein in muscles is? Myoglobin
Myoglobin's function is to? Store oxygen
Lactic acid is produced in muscles that lack? Oxygen
Lactic acid causes? Fatigue
When oxygen is not present in contracting muscles, what is formed that causes fatigue? Lactic acid
The term oxygen debt refers to a lack of oxygen during the process of? Cell respiration
In the neuromuscular junction, what is the end of the motor neuron called? Axon terminal
In the neuromuscular junction, what is the space called? Synapse
In the neuromuscular junction, what is the membrane of muscle fiber called? Sarcolemma
In the neuromuscular junction, acetylcholine is contained within the? Axon terminal
In the neuromuscular junction, cholinesterase is contained within the? Sarcolemma
In a neuromuscular junction, the impulse is transmitted from the motor neuron by? Acetylcholine to the muscle fiber
In the neuromuscular junction acetylcholine is inactivated by? Cholinesterase
The units of contraction within a muscle fiber are called? Sarcomeres
Within a muscle fiber, the sarcoplasmic reticulum contains? Calcium ions
Within a sarcomere, the contracting proteins are? Myosin and actin
During polarization, the muscle fiber has a ________ charge outside the membrane and a _________ charge inside? Positive, negative
During polarization, _______ ions are abundant outside the muscle fiber and _______ ions are abundant inside? Sodium, potassium
During depolarization of a muscle fiber, _______ ions rush into the cell? Sodium
During depolarization of a muscle fiber, there is a _______ charge outside the membrane and a _______ charge outside? Negative, positive
During repolarization of a muscle fiber, ________ ions rush out of the cell? Potassium
Depolarization of a muscle fiber is stimulated by? Acetylcholine
Depolarization of a muscle fiber is stimulated by acetylcholine that allows the entry of? Sodium ions
In the sliding filament mechanism, _________ filaments pull _______ filaments toward the center of the sarcomere? Myosin, actin
In the sliding filament mechanism, the inhibiting proteins are? Troponin and tropomyosin
In the sliding filament mechanism, the inhibiting proteins are shifted out of the way by? Calcium ions
During exercise, there is more blood within muscles because of? Vasodilation within the muscles
During exercise, excess heat is given off as _______ increases? Sweating
During exercise, more blood will be circulated to muscles because of increased? Heart rate
The muscle around the eye that closes the eye is the? Orbicularis oculi
The muscle around the mouth that puckers the lips is the? Orbicularis oculi
The muscle attached to the mandible that raises the lower jaw is the? Masseter
The muscle on the shoulder that abducts the arm is the? Deltoid
The muscle on the front of the arm that flexes the forearm is the? Biceps brachii
The muscle on the back of the arm that extends the forearm is the? Triceps brachii
The muscle on the upper back that raises or lowers the shoulder is the? Trapezius
The muscle on the chest that flexes and adducts the arm is the? Pectoralis major
The muscle on the back of the trunk that extends and adducts the arm is the? Latissimus dorsi; Teres major
The muscle on the ventral side of the trunk that flexes the vertebral column is the? Rectus abdominus
The muscle on the buttock that extends the thigh is the? Gluteus maximus
The muscle in the inguinal area that flexes the thigh is the? Iliopsoas
The muscle on the front of the thigh that flexes the thigh is the? Quadriceps femoris
The muscle group on the back of the thigh that extends the thigh is the? Hamstring group
The muscle on the lateral side of the hip that abducts the thigh is the? Gluteus medius
The muscle on the front of the thigh that flexes the thigh and lower leg is the? Sartorius
The muscle group on the medial side of the thigh that adducts the thigh is the? Adductor group
The muscle on the front of the lower leg that dorsiflexes the foot is the? Tibialis anterior
The muscle on the back of the lower leg that plantar flexes the foot is the? Gastrocnemius; Soleus
A synergist to the gastrocnemius is the? Soleus
An antagonist to the gastrocnemius is the? Tibialis anterior
An antagonist to the gastrocnemius is the tibialis anterior, because it? Dorsiflexes the foot
The muscular system includes? Muscles and accessory structures
Muscular system provides? Mobility and movement
Muscular system produces? Heat
Muscular does NOT include ______ or ______ muscle? Cardiac, smooth
Muscle cells are specialized for? Contraction
What do fibers do to produce movement? Shorten
Each muscle is made up of thousands of individual muscle cells AKA? Fibers
The brain recruits high numbers of ______ based on need? Fibers
What anchors muscle to bone and other muscles? Tendons
What is a flat, sheet-like tendon called? Aponeurosis
Tendons are a deep continuation of __________ that covers the muscle? Deep fascia
Tendons merges with the _________ to anchor to bone? Periosteum
Where the muscle originates is called? Origin
Usually the origin is more? Stationary and more proximal
What is the opposite end of the origin across a joint from the origin called? Insertion
What is the primary muscle (prime mover) that brings about the desired movement called? Protagonist
What is the muscle that does the opposite of the desired movement called? Antagonist
What is the secondary muscles that bring about the desired movement called? Synergist
What role of the brain initiates the signal to the muscle in the premotor and motor areas of the cortex? Frontal lobes
What role of the brain coordinates the movements in a very specific order? Cerebellum
What role of the brain is for subconscious input? Cerebellum
What is muscle tone? Slight contraction of muscle that is present most of the time
Postural muscles increase when standing vs.? Lying
What is thermogenesis? Heat production from normal muscle metabolism
Thermogenesis is due to? Chemical reactions and friction
Thermogenesis is increased with? Increased activity
Muscle sense is AKA? Proprioception
What is the brain's awareness of position of the muscle and thus the joint called? Muscle sense
Muscle sense is sensed by? Stretch receptors (muscle spindle fibers, proprioceptors, GTOs)
Muscle sense detect? Changes in the length of the muscle
Primary energy source for muscle contraction? ATP
ATP is ______ lasting? Short
Secondary energy sources for muscle contraction are? Creatine phosphate and glycogen
Creatine phosphate breaks into? Creatine and phosphate
Creatine phosphate breaks into creatine and phosphate to release energy to make more? ATP
Most creatine is converted back to creatine phosphate but some of it is converted to? Creatinine
What is creatinine? A nitrogenous waste product
What is glycogen? Chains of glucose molecules
What is the most abundant energy source for muscle contraction? Glycogen
What is broken down into glucose which goes through cell respiration? Glycogen
What carries oxygen in the blood? Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin contains iron which binds the? Oxygen
What carries oxygen in the muscle? Myoglobin
Myoglobin contains iron which binds the? Oxygen
What makes the muscle red? Myoglobin
When O2 need is greater than the supply, it is called? Oxygen debt
What is hypoxia? Deficiency of oxygen
During oxygen debt, glucose is converted into ___________ in anaerobic respiration? Lactic acid
During oxygen debt, lactic acid is converted to ___________ in the liver? Pyrovic acid
What is recovery oxygen uptake? Breathing to supply the oxygen required by the liver to detoxify lactic acid
What causes breathing to slow gradually after stopping exercise? Recovery oxygen uptake
What is a microscopic structure? Muscle fiber
What is the motor nerve ending at each muscle fiber? Neuromuscular junction
What is the enlarged end of the motor neuron called? (There are 3 different names) Axon terminal; motor end plate; synaptic knob
The axon terminal, AKA motor end plate or synaptic knob contains sacs of? Acetylcholine (ACh)
What is the cell membrane of the muscle fiber called? Sarcolemma
Sarcolemma contains ________ sites for ACh? Receptor
Sarcolemma contains ________ that deactivates ACh? Cholinesterase
What is the junction between the axon terminal and the muscle fiber sarcolemma? Synapse
What is synapse AKA? Synaptic cleft
What is the contractile units in the muscle fiber called? Sarcomere
What are groups of sarcomeres called? Myofibrils
What is AKA thin filaments? Actin
What is thin contractile proteins that interact with myosin? Actin
What is myosin AKA? Thick filaments
What are thicker contractile proteins called? Myosin
What is a protein backbone that anchors actin filaments? Z line
What forms the end boundaries of the sarcomere? Z line
What is the protein that anchors myosin to the Z line? Titin
What 2 inhibitory proteins prevent contraction when relaxed? Troponin and tropomyosin
What is the ER of the muscle cell called? Sarcoplasmic reticulum
The sarcoplasmic reticulum stores? Calcium ions
Nerve impulse causes release of ____ from ___________? ACh, axon terminal
ACh causes electrical impulse in the ___________? Sarcolemma
Contraction causes actin filaments to pull against myosin filaments called the? Sliding filament mechanism
At rest, a sarcolemma is? Polarized
A sarcolemma has a resting potential when it is? Polarized
When sarcolemma is polarized, the outside is ___ and inside is ___? +. -
When sarcolemma is polarized, there is more _______ and ________? Sodium, potassium
The gradient of the sarcolemma is set up by the? Sodium-potassium pump
The gradient set up by the sodium-potassium pump requires? ATP
During sarcolemma depolarization, ACh bonds to? ACh receptors
Sarcolemma depolarization causes the sarcolemma to become more _________ to Na+? Permeable
During sarcolemma depolarization, Na+ rushes into the cell and depolarizes it, causing? A reversal of charges
T tubules are AKA? Transverse tubules
What are channels that carry the action potential to the inner parts of the cell? T tubules
Sarcolemma repolarization occurs by? Resetting the action potential
Contraction occurs by process of? Sliding filament mechanism
What is reducing the angle of a joint called? Flexion
What is increasing the angle of a joint called? Extension
What is tilting the foot/ankle medially called? Inversion
What is tilting the foot/ankle laterally called? Eversion
What is rotating the palm up called? Supanation
What is rotating the palm down called? Pronation
What is (R & L)-side bending called? Lateral flexion
What is (R,L, internal, external)-rotating around a joint called? Rotation
What is moving in a circular motion without rotation called? Circumduction
What is bringing a part away from the midline called? Abduction
What is bringing a part toward the midline called? Adduction
What is bringing a part toward the midline or posteriorly called? Retraction
What is bringing a part away from the midline or anteriorly called? Protraction
What is (A,P,R,L) called? Translation
What is decreasing angle of ankle joint called? Dorsiflexion
What is increasing angle of ankle joint called? Plantar flexion
What are the 3 muscles that make up the calf called? Gastrocnemeus, soleus, plantaris
What are the 4 muscles that make up the rotator cuff called? Supraspinatous, infraspinatous, subscapularis, teres minor
The glutes are made up of 3 muscles called? Gluteus maximus, gluteus minimus, and gluteus medius
Created by: laceylake