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RT Exposure - PartII

Review-Bushong Chptrs. 10,11,12, 13, 14

Interaction involving incident x-ray interacting with outer-shell loosely bound electrons Compton Effect or Scattering
Compton scattering reduces image __________ contrast
During fluroscopy the greatest source of scattered radiation PATIENT
Compton or photoelectric increases with increasing kVp Compton
Effect of atomic number of absorber on Compton scattering No effect
As the mass density of absorber increases; there is increase or decrease in Compton Increase
Inner-shell electron interaction and total absorption of incoming x-ray Photoelectric
The probability of photoelctric effect and the atomic number of absorbing material directly to the third power
As kVp increases the amount of photoelectric increases or decreases decreases
As the mass density of patient body part increases the amount of photoelectric proportional increase
using radiation and film to produce an image is known as _________ effect photographic
T or F don't worry about placing your lead R or L marker on an image - just add later! False - any lawyer can argue that you took the wrong side of body and added marker to correct
T or F Radiographic film has an expiration date True
T or F Film should be stored in an upright position. True
T or F Due to the ability to add any patient information to an image after processing don't worry about getting correct information False - lawyers!
The active layer of film is the _______________ emulsion containing silver halide crystals
Radiographic film will LOSE or GAIN contrast if stored in temperatures above 68 degrees loss of contrast and also too high developer temperature,radiation fog,increased shelf life
Too dry storage conditions or humidity below 40% results in ______ ________ artifacts static electricity
Low contrast films produces images with ______________ (color?) many shades of gray
High contrast film produces images with ______________________ (color?) black-and-white
The ________ of a screen-film is its sensitivity to x-rays and light Speed
An 800 screen-film combination requires more radiation than an 100 speed system. T or F False
The range of acceptable exposure technique to produce an image is known as this latitude
T or F Automatic processing is common in current imaging departments False - laser printers
During the developing stage of film processing is when the _______ image to _________ image latent to visible
The purpose of the fixer is this clearing underexposed silve halide from film and hardening of film emulsion
Which stage of processing is associated with archival quality fixer
Using an incorrect safelight may result in fogging of a film T or F True
In addition to turning on the main switch of a processor what other step must be taken turn on the water supply
T or F Daylight processors were the latest technology before digital processing True
The purpose on an intensifying screen convert incoming x-rays to light after interaction with screen's phosphor
The ________ is the active layer of the radiographic intensifying screen phosphor
Term for matching of screen light wavelength or color with film sensitivity Spectral matching
Exposure required without screens/ exposure with screens Intensification Factor (IF)
Speckeled appearance on an image cause by increase in screen speed and too little mAs image noise or quantum mottle
Emitting light(phosphor) in response to some outside stimulation luminescence or fluorescence
Emitting light (phosphor) even after stimulation phosphorescence
Other terms for phosphorescence screen laf or afterglow
Definition of detective quantum efficiency (DQE) Percentage of x-rays absorbed by image receptor
Definition of conversion efficiency (CE) of screens amount of light emitted by screen phosphor for each x-ray absorbed
Grainy,mottled or splotchy image quantum mottle
Ability to image small objects that have high subject contrast spatial resolution
Ability to distinguish between and to image similar tissues. contrast resolution
Faster(high) speed screens have more or less spatial resoultion less
Spatial resolution may be measured in units of______________ line pairs per millimeter
The rigis holder that contains the radiographic film and intensifying screens cassette
An increase in photoelctric effect results in Increase or Decrease in patient dose increase because of photoelctric absorption
Increase kVp results in more _____________ scattered radiation
Scatter radiation Increases or Decreases as the field size of the x-ray beam increases increases
Scatter radiation from not enough collimation will result in ________ contrast and ________ decreased contrast and increased film density
Increasing patient thickness results in greater scatter radiation; to minimize this effect use_____________________ compression paddle or compression belt or possible turn patient
State three examples of beam-restricting devices variable aperture collimator, variable diaphragm and cones or cylinders
What is the purpose of a PBL positive beam limiting device, type of automatic collimation and beam size is not larger than cassette size
A device used to reduce the amount of scatter radiation reaching the image receptor grid
The grid is found between the ________ and the ____________ patient and image receptor
The ________ ratio grid ________ patient dose high ratio increases dose or low ratio grid reduces
The formula to claculate grid ratio grid ratio = h/D
The radiolucent material found between the grid strips interspace material
The number of grid strips per centimeter is called grid ____________ frequency
the use of higher frequency grids result in having to use ____________ exposure technique and ________ radiation exposure greater and greater
Specially designed grids having ratios of ___________ are used in mammography 4:1 or 5:1
Define nonhygrososcopic doesn't absorb moisture
Interspace material aluminum or plastic fiber
Grid strip material lead
The major function of a grid improve image contrast
k = image contrast with grid/image contrast without grid contrast improvement factor
The contrast improvement factor is ________ for high-ratio grids higher
B = patient dose with grid/patient dose without grid Bucky Factor
When going from using no grid to using a 16:1 grid you need to increase the original mAs about _________ times 5- 6 times
The undesirable absorption of x-rays by the grid resulting in absence of optical density grid cutoff
Grid 'cutoff" most common with __________ grids parallel
This type of grid has strips running parallel to long and short axes of the grid crossed
This type of grid has strips coincide with the divergence of the x-ray beam focused
T or F High-ratio grids have less positioning latitude than low-ratio grids True
A reason for grid cutoff when using a focused grid wrong distance used
Moving grids are common in the imaging department True or False
Appearance of cutoff when the grid is off-focus or upside-down grid cut-off toward the edges
Grid ratios up to _____ are used for 90 kVp and under 8:1
When using no grid and then switching to a 16:1 grid you need to increase your kVp by ___________ kVp 30 - 40
Using grids in the air-gap technique results in _________ contrast and ________ scatter radiation improved contrast and reduced scatter
T or F During the air gap technique radiation scatter is reduced because the air filters the low energy x-rays False - air can't filter x-rays; the distance from patient to grid prevents x-rays from reaching the grid/film
Created by: fleury21