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edema Abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces of tissues.
If an infectious disease can be transmitted directly from one person to another, it is: communicable disease
In infectious diseases such as hepatitis B and C, a reservoir for pathogens is: The blood
The most effective way to break the chain of infection is by Practicing good hand hygiene
A nurse is assigned to care for a client with a deep wound infection. Which of the following actions would result in the contamination of sterile gloves? The nurse pulls up the sheet over the client's perineum for better draping.
A client is isolated because the client has pulmonary tuberculosis. The nurse notes that the client seems angry but knows this is a normal response to isolation. The best intervention is to: Explain the isolation procedures and provide meaningful stimulation.
A gown should be worn when: Blood or body fluids may get on the nurse's clothing from a task the nurse plans to perform
When a nurse is performing surgical hand hygiene, the nurse must keep the hands: Above the elbows
To remove a glove that is contaminated, what should the nurse do first? Grasp the outside of the cuff or palm of the glove and pull it away from the hand without touching the wrist or fingers.
What is the single most effective method by which the nurse can break the chain of infection? Wash hands between procedures and clients.
Which of the following statements reflects the current trend in the directives from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for minimizing risks of infection? Keep all drainage tubing below the level of the waist and/or site of insertion.
The nurse has just admitted a client to rule out active hepatitis B. The client is confused, spitting and scratching everyone who enters the room. The nurse should: Use gloves, mask, face shield, and gown when entering the room to perform the initial assessment.
For which airborne disease(s) would the nurse be required to use gloves, respiratory devices, and gown when in close contact with the client? Chickenpox, pulmonary tuberculosis
Before the nurse washes the hands when leaving an isolation room, what is the last thing that is removed? Goggles
The nurse discovers an electrical fire in a client's room. The nurse's first action would be to: Evacuate any clients or visitors in immediate danger.
A parent calls the pediatrician's office frantic because her 2-year-old son drank a bottle of cleaner. Which of the following is the most important instruction the nurse can give to this parent? Call the poison control center.
As the nurse plans to teach the parents about these risks, the nurse remembers that adolescents are at a greater risk for injury from: Automobile accidents, suicide, and substance abuse
During the night shift a client is found wandering the hospital halls looking for a bathroom. The nurse's initial intervention would be to: Provide scheduled toileting during the night shift.
Lisa, a nurse assistant, is working with the nurse during the nurse's shift. One of the nurse's clients has upper limb restraints. In delegating care of this client to Lisa, the nurse would tell her to: Report any signs of redness, excoriation, or constriction of circulation under the restraint.
The family of the nurse's confused, ambulatory client insists that all four side rails be up when the client is alone. The best way to handle this situation is to: Inform them of the risks associated with side rail use.
During the nurse's assessment of a 56-year-old man, he reports increased alcohol consumption because of stress at work. One of the expected outcomes for this client will be to: Provide the client with information about stress management classes.
A child for which the nurse is caring in the hospital starts to have a grand mal seizure while playing in the playroom. What is the most important intervention the nurse can do during this situation? Clear the area around the child to protect the child from injury.
When providing health maintenance teaching to new employees in the food-handling department, the nurse emphasizes the need to perform hand hygiene after using the bathroom to prevent: Spread of hepatitis A
A student nurse is designing a health fair project aimed at reducing motor vehicle accidents. For which group of clients would this subject be most appropriate? Adolescents
As a member of the hospital's bioterrorism team, the nurse understands the importance of knowing how an organism is transmitted. Smallpox has the potential to spread quickly because it is transmitted via which route? Airborne
After the nurse assists a client with a history of seizures to a recliner chair, the client begins to have a seizure. The nurse should immediately: Slide the client to the floor and cradle the client's head in the nurse's lap.
Health care workers who have direct contact with individuals suspected of being contaminated with anthrax should do which of the following? Wear an isolation gown, gloves, and high-efficiency particle arrestor (HEPA) mask and Have the client remove clothing and place it in a sealed biohazard bag
The nurse reassures the senior that this is not possible because the vaccine contains a dead virus and explains that this injection will produce _?_ immunity, in which the senior's body will make antibodies to the virus. Active
assumptions Statements that describe concepts or connect two concepts that are factual and that are accepted as truths.
concepts Mental formulations of objects or events that come from individual perceptual experience.
domain Perspective and territory of a professional discipline.
environment situation (environment/situation) All possible conditions affecting the client and the setting in which health care needs occur.
grand theory Theory that requires further specification through research before it can be fully tested and applied.
input Information that enters the system.
interdisciplinary theory Theory that suggests a purposive and systematic view of phenomena specific to the discipline of the inquiry.
middle-range theory Theory that is limited in scope and less abstract; it addresses specific phenomena or concepts and reflects nursing practice.
nursing theory Organized framework of concepts and purposes designed to guide the practice of nursing.
output End product of a system.
paradigm Term used to denote the linkages of science, philosophy, and theory accepted by a discipline.
person Recipient of care.
prescriptive theory Theory addressing nursing therapeutics and the consequences of interventions.
theory Set of concepts, definitions, relationships, and assumptions that project a systematic view of phenomena.
nursing's paradigm Links the person, health, environment/situation and nursing to direct the activities of the nursing profession, including knowledge development, philosophy, theory, education experience, research and practice.
caring Sense of dedication to another person.
comforting Skillful and gentle performance of a nursing procedure. phenomena Data that can be observed in reality.
nursing Diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems.
feedback I s a cyclical part of the process of communication that regulates and modifies the content of messages.
presence Person-to-person encounter that conveys a closeness and sense of security.
epidemiology Study of the occurrence, distribution, and causes of disease.
iatrogenic infections Infections caused by a treatment or diagnostic procedure.
invasive Referring to procedures that involve puncture, incision, or insertion of a foreign object, such as a needle or catheter, into the body.
localized With regard to infections, a type of infection in which the infectious process is limited to a particular area, such as a wound infection.
microorganisms Any microscopic entity capable of carrying on living processes, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi.
phagocytosis Process by which certain cells, such as macrophages, engulf and dispose of microorganisms.
systemic Of or pertaining to the whole body rather than to a localized area.
aerobic Of or pertaining to the presence of air or oxygen; requiring oxygen for the maintenance of life.
anaerobic Absence of oxygen.
asepsis Absence of germs or microorganisms.
bactericidal Destructive to bacteria.
bacteriostasis State in which the development or reproduction of bacteria is suspended.
broad-spectrum antibiotics Antibiotics that are effective against a wide range of infectious microorganisms.
carriers Animals or persons who harbor and spread a disease-causing organism but who do not become ill.
communicable disease Any disease that can be transmitted from one person or animal to another by direct or indirect contact or by vectors.
disinfection Process of killing pathogenic organisms.
endogenous infection Infection produced within a cell or organism.
exogenous infection Infection originating outside an organ or part.
hand hygiene CDC-recommended approaches for cleansing of the hands involving the use of an instant alcohol hand antiseptic before and after providing client care, hand washing with soap and water when hands are visibly soiled, or performing a surgical scrub.
hand washing Vigorous, brief rubbing together of all surfaces of hands lathered in soap, followed by rinsing under a stream of water.
immunocompromised Abnormal condition of the immune system in which cellular or humoral immunity is inadequate.
inflammatory response Protective vascular and cellular reaction that neutralizes pathogens and repairs body cells.
leukocytosis Abnormal increase in the number of circulating white blood cells.
medical asepsis Procedures used to reduce and prevent the spread of microorganisms; also known as clean technique.
necrotic Of or pertaining to the death of tissue in response to disease or injury.
normal flora Microorganisms that live on or within a body to compete with disease-producing microorganisms
pathogenicity Ability of a pathogenic agent to produce disease.
sterile field Specified area, such as within a tray or on a sterile towel, that is considered free of microorganisms.
suprainfection Secondary infection usually caused by an opportunistic pathogen.
surgical asepsis Procedures used to eliminate all microorganisms, including pathogens and spores, from an object or area; also known as sterile technique.
susceptibility Condition of being vulnerable to a disease or disorder.
vector Carrier, especially one that transmits disease.
virulence The ability to produce disease.
health care-associated infections A client develops an infection that was not present or incubating at the time of admission.
air pollution Contamination of the environmental atmosphere with substances known as pollutants, which are not normally found in the air.
Ambularm Safety device that alerts health care personnel that a client is attempting to get up. Provides an alternative to restraints.
aura Sensation, as of light or warmth, that may precede an attack of migraine or epileptic seizure. bioterrorism
carbon monoxide (CO) Colorless, odorless, poisonous gas produced by the combustion of carbon or organic fuels.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Federal agency responsible for the enforcement of federal regulations regarding the manufacture and distribution of food, drugs, and cosmetics to ensure protection against the sale of impure or dangerous substances.
food poisoning Toxic processes resulting from the ingestion of a food contaminated by toxic substances or by bacteria containing toxins.
immunization Process by which resistance to an infectious disease is produced or augmented. Immunity is acquired after the oral administration or injection of an antigen, which causes production of an antibody within the body.
land pollution Contamination of soil by improper disposal of radioactive or bioactive waste products.
noise pollution Noise level in an environment at the level that it becomes uncomfortable to the inhabitants.
poison Any substance that impairs health or destroys life when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed by the body in relatively small amounts.
pollutant Harmful chemical or waste material discharged into the water or atmosphere.
relative humidity Amount of moisture in the air as compared with the maximum amount that the air could contain at the same temperature.
restraint Device to aid in the immobilization of a client or a client's extremity.
seizure Brief, temporary malfunctions of nerve cells in the brain may result in seizure activity. A generalized tonic-clonic seizure is characterized by loss of consciousness, tonicity (rigidity), and clonicity (jerking).
seizure precautions Measures that protect the client from injury during a seizure.
status epilepticus Medical emergency whereby a person has continual seizures without interruption.
water pollution Contamination of lakes, rivers, and streams by industrial pollutants.
bed check Alarm system that indicates when a client has exited their bed; the alarm sounds when the pressure is relieved from the Sensormat in their bed.
zygote Fertilized ovum created by the joining of the mother's ovum and father's sperm.
nosocomial infection Infection acquired during hospitalization or during a stay in a health care facility.
environment Physical circumstances in which a person works or lives; can increase the likelihood that certain illnesses will occur
sterilization Rendering a person unable to produce children; accomplished by surgical, chemical, or other means
hypothermia Abnormal lowering of body temperature below 95° F ( 5° C), usually caused by prolonged exposure to cold.
pathogen Any microorganism capable of producing disease.
exudates Fluid, cells, or other substances that have been slowly discharged from cells or blood vessels through small pores or breaks in cell membranes.
granulation tissue Soft, pink, fleshy projections of tissue that form during the healing process in a wound that is not healing by primary intention.
purulent Producing or containing pus.
sanguineous Fluid containing red blood cells.
serous A clear (like plasma) fluid that forms an exudate at the site of an inflammation.
edema Abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces of tissues.
nightingale's theory oriented towards providing fresh air, light, warmth, cleanliness, quiet, and adequate nutrition "handwashing"
peplau's theory focuses on the individual, the nurse, and the interactive process. The result in the nurse-client relationship. "art of nursing"
henderson theory assisting the individual, sick or well. The goal is independence
rogers theory energy field; considers the individual as an energy field coexisting within the universe
orem's theory self-care deficit theory. focuses on the client's self-care needs. What can we do to help them take care of themselves
leiningers theory goal is to provide the client with culturally specific nursing care
roy's theory views the client as an adaptive system. the goal of nursing is to help the person adapt to changes in physiological needs, self-concept, role functions and interdependent relations during health and illness
watson's theory transpersonal caring, nursing action's purpose is to understand the interrelationship between health, illness, and human behavior
benner and wrubel's theory caring is central; in caring for one's clients, nurses help clients recover by noticing those interventions that are successful and guide future caregiving
Nursing's paradigm includes: The person, health, environment/situation, and nursing
Which of the following statements about prescriptive theories is accurate? They reflect practice and address specific phenomena.
A theory is a set of concepts, definitions, relationships, and assumptions that: Explains a phenomenon
There is a contemporary move toward addressing nursing as a science or as evidenced-based practice. This suggests that Theories will be tested to describe or predict client outcomes.
To practice in today's health care environment, nurses need a strong scientific knowledge base in nursing and other disciplines, such as the physical, social, and behavioral sciences. This relates to which of the following? Interdisciplinary theories
Which theories describe an orderly process beginning with conception and continuing through death? Developmental theories
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is useful to nurses, who must continually prioritize a client's nursing care needs. The most basic or first-level needs include: Air, water, and food
Leininger's theory of cultural care diversity and universality specifically addresses: Caring for clients from unique cultures
As an art, nursing relies on knowledge gained from practice and reflection on past experiences. As a science, nursing relies on: Scientifically tested knowledge
Each science has a domain, which is the perspective of the discipline. This domain: Describes the subject, central concepts, values and beliefs, phenomena of interest, and central problems of the discipline
A theory is a set of concepts, definitions, relationships, and assumptions or propositions to explain a phenomenon. The purposes of the components of a theory are to: Describe, explain, predict, and/or prescribe interrelationships among the concepts that define the phenomenon
Nursing theories focus on the phenomena of nursing and nursing care. Which of the following is true of phenomena? They are aspects of reality that can be consciously sensed or experienced.
Theories that are broad and complex are: Grand theories
The theory provides a basis for nurses to assist clients in appraising and adapting to the uncertainty and illness response and can be described as: A middle-range theory
The type of theory that tests the validity and predictability of nursing interventions is: A prescriptive theory
The nursing paradigm identifies four linkages of interest to the nursing profession. These four linkages are: The person, health, environment/situation, and nursing
The nursing process is an example of an open system. An open system: Interacts with the environment by exchanging information
Evidence-based nursing practice is the end result of: Theory-generating and theory-testing research
The nursing theory that emphasizes the delivery of nursing care for the whole person to meet the physical, emotional, intellectual, social, and spiritual needs of the client and family is: Abdellah's theory
A nurse hears a colleague tell a student nurse that it is best not to touch the clients unless performing a procedure or an assessment. Why is this not the best practice? Touch forms a connection between nurse and client.
Touch is relational and helps create a connection between the nurse and the client. Touch is best used when there is a caring connection between nurse and client.
The nurse demonstrates the concept of "knowing the client" when he or she: Is able to detect changes in the client's condition based on shared information and bonding
The client has discussed a love of the Bible with the nurse, who then recommends a favorite Bible verse. The nurse is reprimanded and told that there is no place in nursing for spiritual caring. Which of the following would be an appropriate response? "Spiritual, mind, and body connections can affect health."
A number of strategies have the potential for creating work environments that enable nurses to demonstrate more caring behaviors. Some of these include: Providing flexibility, autonomy, and improved staffing
Listening includes not only taking in what a client says but also: Interpreting and understanding what the client means
"Presence" involves a person-to-person encounter that: Conveys closeness and a sense of caring
Clients' perceptions are important because health care organizations are: Placing greater emphasis on client satisfaction
A study of clients' perceptions is important because health care organizations are placing greater emphasis on client satisfaction.
The caring aspect of nursing may be negatively affected in clinical practice today primarily because of: Rise in technology that takes nurses' attention away from clients
The nurse demonstrates caring behavior when he or she: Pats the client's arm when approaching the bed
According to Watson's transpersonal caring theory, the nurse should understand which of the following? Caring can increase healing and promote well-being.
Conscious caring by the nurse can promote healing and is complementary to conventional nursing practice. Caring can be shared and is a powerful connection between individuals. It is important for the nurse to appreciate the culture of the client and incorporate this into the care. Caring is individual and is different for all.
Because clients and nurses may differ in their perceptions of caring, it is important that the nurse: Seek information regarding what is important to the client.
Which of the following nurses is showing behavior that indicates that the nurse is providing presence in a caring relationship? The staff nurse who stays with a client who is undergoing an unfamiliar procedure
The nurse demonstrates listening skills by: Paying attention to the tone of voice in addition to the client's words so the meaning is clear
The nurse can best demonstrate caring to a client who has recently suffered a loss through miscarriage by: Sitting with the client in silence
A nurse who normally uses touch when caring for clients might consider this inappropriate for which of the following clients? A psychiatric client who is displaying suspicion and fear
Family members make the following comments about the nursing care being received. Which one should be investigated further? "The night nurse tells us to wait and ask the doctor the questions we have."
A caring nurse should show interest in answering questions and giving clear explanations. indicates that the nurse is shirking responsibility. Teaching the family is important and gives the family the feeling of being useful. Keeping the family informed and included in care is a sign of good nursing. Honesty is a quality of caring. False reassurance is dishonest and is not helpful.
In caring for a client, the nurse would describe learning about the client's family as: Essential
bioterrorism` The use of biological agents to create fear and threat.
Created by: Tango2142