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Unit 11

Nutrition (updated)

Nutrition plays a large role in determining strength, skeletal and muscular development, physical agility, resistance to disease, and mental ability.
Essential nutrients are composed of chemical elements found in food.
Cholesterol is synthesized (manufactured) by the liver. True or False True
Common sources of protein include meats, fish, eggs, cereals, peas, and nuts. True or False True
Digestive juices containing enzymes are secreted in the mouth, stomach, small intestine, and pancreas. True or False True
Many food habits are formed during youth, and changing them is a difficult and slow process. True or False True
Therapeutic diets are modifications of the normal diet. True or False True
Anorexia is a loss of appetite. True or False True
Both clear and full liquid diets are nutritionally inadequate. True or False True
Fat-restricted diets are used for patients with gallbladder or liver disease. True or False True
Obesity is a form of malnutrition, due to excess food consumption. True or False True
A condition in which bones become porous and break easily is ____. osteoporosis
____ includes all body processes relating to food. Nutrition
The major source of human energy is ____. carbohydrates
The essential nutrients made up of amino acids are ____. proteins
Organic compounds essential to life are ____. vitamins
How many glasses of water should the average person drink each day? 6 to 8
The organ that produces bile to emulsify fats is the ____. liver
The process in which blood capillaries pick up digested nutrients is ____. absorption
The type of therapeutic diet that consists of easily digested foods that do not irritate the digestive tract is ____. bland
The therapeutic diet that contains exchange lists that group foods according to type, nutrients, and caloric content is ____. diabetic
The essential nutrients that provide nine calories per gram are ____. fats
The religion that encourages a vegetarian diet is ____. Seventh Day Adventism
Which of the following is not one of the three most common lipids found in both food and the human body? cellulose
The therapeutic diet that limits raw fruits and vegetables, whole-grain breads and cereals, nuts, beans, and fried foods is ____. low-residue diet
Vitamin B12 Found in liver, milk, cheese, and eggs; important for production of healthy red blood cells
Thiamine Promotes normal appetite and digestion, and normal function of the nervous system
Niacin Found in meats, poultry, fish, and peanuts; promotes healthy skin, nerves, and digestive tract
Vitamin K Found in spinach, kale, cabbage, and broccoli; essential for the normal clotting of blood and formation of prothrombin
Vitamin E Found in peanuts, egg yolk, and dark, leafy greens; necessary for protection of cell structure; antioxidant to inhibit breakdown of vitamin A and some unsaturated fatty acids
Folic acid Found in green, leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, and yeast; important for protein metabolism, maturation of red blood cells, formation of hemoglobin, and synthesis of DNA
Vitamin D One source is sunshine; aids in growth, regulates calcium and phosphorus absorption and metabolism, and builds and maintains bones and teeth
Riboflavin Found in milk, enriched breads and cereals, and green, leafy vegetables; important for health of mouth tissue and eyes
Vitamin A Found in liver, egg yolk, butter, and whole milk; important in structure and function of the cells of the skin and mucous membranes
Vitamin C Found mainly in citrus fruits, melons, berries, and tomatoes; important for healthy gums, wound healing, and absorption of iron
Pyridoxine Found in liver, poultry, fish, and enriched breads and cereals; important for protein synthesis and metabolism and production of antibodies
Sulfur Found in meat, poultry, fish, and eggs; activates energy-producing enzymes and important for healthy skin, hair, and nails
Sodium Main source is table salt; aids in fluid balance and acid-base balance, regulates muscles and nerves, and aids in glucose absorption
Fluorine or fluoride Found in certain types of water, fish, seafood, and meat; important for healthy teeth and bones
Chlorine or chloride Found in salt, meat, fish, poultry, milk, and eggs; important for acid-base balance and formation of hydrochloric acid
Calcium Main sources are milk, milk products, and cheese; develops and maintains bones and teeth and aids in clotting of the blood
Iron Found in liver and muscle meats; important for formation of hemoglobin in red blood cells and aids in production of energy
Magnesium Found in meat, seafood, nuts, and cereal grains; constituent of bones, muscles, and red blood cells
Potassium Found in meat, milk, vegetables, and bananas; maintains fluid balance, regular heart rhythm, and proper nerve function
Copper Found in organ meats, nuts, and whole-grain cereals; necessary for utilization of iron and as a component of enzymes
Phosphorus Found in milk, meat, nuts, and cereals; develops and maintains bones and teeth, aids in metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, and is a constituent of body cells
Iodine Found in saltwater fish and some table salts; necessary for formation of hormones in the thyroid gland
Zinc Found in seafood (especially oysters), eggs, and milk; component of enzymes and insulin and essential for growth and wound healing
Functions of fats. provide heat and energy, provide fatty acids needed for growth and development, carry fat-soluble vitamins, maintain body temperature by providing insulation, cushion organs and bones, provide flavor to meals
Functions of Protein build and repair body tissue, provide heat and energy, help produce antibodies, regulate body functions
Function of water in the body essential for digestion, makes up most of the blood plasma and cytoplasm of cells, helps body tissues absorb nutrients, helps move waste material through the body, regulates body functions
milk, milk products, yogurt, and cheese: 2 to 3 servings; vegetables: 3 to 5 servings; fruits: 2 to 4 servings; bread, cereals, rice, and pasta: 6 to 11 servings; meat, fish, poultry, dry beans, eggs, and nuts: 2 to 3 servings major food groups, and number of recommended servings per day.
Foods that should be avoided or limited in a sodium-restricted diet. smoked meats or fish, processed foods, pickles, olives, sauerkraut, processed cheeses
Organic molecules that help protect the body from free radicals, substances that can damage tissues, cells, and genes is are called: antioxidants
To manage weight, every individual should engage in at least ____ or more of moderate intensity physical activity most days of the week. 30 minutes
What allows individuals to develop a customized food plan based on age, gender, height, weight, and level of activity? My Plate
The rate at which the body uses energy just for maintaining its own tissue, without doing any voluntary work is called: basal metabolic rate (BMI)
Obesity increases the risk of developing: hypertension, sleep apnea and diabetes mellitus
What vitamin is found in enriched bread and cereals, liver, and potatoes and promotes normal appetite and digestion and normal function of the nervous system? thiamine
What vitamin or mineral if found in organ meats and seafood and is important for metabolism of fat and acts as an anitoxidant? selenium
Created by: votec