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Reproductive system

What are the gonads the ovaries and testes, their function is to form eggs and sperm
what are the functions of the male reproductive system. Production of male hormones Formation of sperm cells Placement of sperm cells in the female reproductive tract
_______ are ducts to store and transport sperm testes
testis are Protected by a capsule of fibrous connective tissue that serves to divide testis into ________ lobules
Each ________ holds several seminiferous tubules lobule
Seminiferous tubules are Lined with ________ ________ that has spermatogenic and supporting cells germinal epithelium
________ cells divide and produce sperm Spermatogenic
Supporting cells Support and nourish __________ cells spermatogenic
__________ cells are In spaces between seminiferous tubules, produce male sex hormones Interstitial
_________ Produces sperms cells by the division of spermatogenic cells Spermatogenesis
Spermatogenesis Begins at ______ and continues for lifetime puberty
Spermatogenesis is controlled by _____ hormone and _______ hormone follicle-stimulating hormone ; luteinizing hormone
The Goal of spermatogenesis is to form _ sperm from _ spermatogonium 4 ; 1
Each sperm has half the number of ________ as other body cells chromosomes
What are the 3 parts of the sperm cell 1. head 2. body 3. flagellum
_____ provides mobility for a sperm cell flagellum
The _____ of a sperm cell contains mitochondria for ATP production Body
The ____ of a sperm cell carried 23 chromosomes Head
______ covers the head of the sperm cell and has enzymes to help penetrate an egg Acrosome
________ ducts carry sperm from testes to outside of body Accessory
What the the types of ducts in the male reproductive system 1. epididymus 2. Vas deferens 3. ejaculatory duct 4. urethra
________ Receives sperm from seminiferous tubules it is the Site of sperm maturation and it Takes 10-14 days for sperm to pass through the tube Epididymus
___ _____Extends from epididymus, through inguinal canal, enters pelvic cavity,runs along lateral surface of bladder, Uses peristalsis to move sperm Vas deferens
______ ______Forms by union of vas deferens and duct from seminal vesicles under the bladder, it Passes through prostate gland and enters the urethra and Contracts to push sperm and fluids into urethra Ejaculatory duct
Seminal vesicles are paired glands whose ducts merge with the vas deferens.... what is their functions Secrete an alkaline fluid to help regulate pH of semen Secrete fructose that serves as energy source for sperm cells
_____ _____ is the doughnut shaped gland encircling the urethra Prostate gland
What is the function of the prostate gland Secretes a milky fluid into urethra that keeps sperm pH slightly alkaline and activates swimming movements of sperm
_____ is the fluid that passes from urethra during ejaculation Semen
What does semen contain? 1. Sperm and secretions from all three glands 2. nutrients for sperm cells 3. molecules to activate sperm motility
_____ is the external sac of skin that holds the testes scrotum
Testes migrate into the scrotum during 7th month of development under the control of ________ testosterone
The normal temperatures for testes is __ degrees lower than body temperature 3
______ is the copulatory organ that deposits sperm into the female vagina penis
_____ penis is the enlarged end covered by a protective sheath called the _____ which is the part that is removed by circumcision in young male infants Glans ; Prepuce
For males; At puberty, hypothalamus secretes ________ _______ ______ gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)stimulates the pituitary gland to release what 2 hormones 1. Follicle-stimulating hormone 2. Luteinizing hormone
_______ _______ hormone - works with testosterone to stimulate spermatogenesis Follicle-stimulating
________ hormone - Promotes growth of interstitial cells and Stimulates production of testosterone by interstitial cells Luteinizing
What are the functions of testosterone in males 1. Promotes the formation of male sex organs in fetal development 2. Promotes maturation of male reproductive organs and the development of male secondary sex characteristics during puberty
What are the male secondary sex characteristics 1. Growth of body hair 2. Increased muscular development 3. Development of heavy bones, broad shoulders, and narrow pelvis 4. Deepening of the voice 5. Increase in rate of cellular metabolism 6. Increase rate of red blood cell production
What are the functions of the female reproductive system. *Produces female sex hormones and sex cells(eggs) *Transports eggs to site where they can meet sperm *Provides environment for development of offspring *Helps facilitate the birthing process *Supplies offspring with nutrients after birth
Describe the ovaries 1. Upper lateral portions of pelvic cavity 2. Size and shapes of almonds 3. Outer surface is covered by a germinal epithelium
During ________(ova production)All germ cells divide and become primary oocytes prior to birth, Females are born with their total number of primary oocytes Oogenesis
Primary ____ do not activate until puberty and only a few are activated and only one is released oocytes
Describe the uterine tubes 1. Extends from ovary to the uterus 2. Possesses fimbria to create current in surrounding fluid to sweep egg into tube 3. Inside lining possesses ciliated columnar epithelium that draws the ovum into the tube and propels it toward the uterus
What are the 3 layers of the uterus 1. Endometrium - Lines interior 2. Myometrium - Smooth muscle 3. Perimetrium - Covers the exterior surface
Describe the uterus 1. Posterior to bladder but bends over and above bladder 2. Hollow organ with thick muscular walls 3. Provides an appropriate internal environment for a growing baby
___ is the neck of the uterus and protrudes into the vagina cervix
the ____ is the upper portion of the uterus that is attached to uterine tubes body
Describe the vagina 1. Collapsible tube extending from uterus to the outside 2. Posterior to urethra and anterior to rectum
the _____ functions as a copulatory organ and a birth canal vagina
____ is the external female genitalia that surrounds the urethral and vaginal openings Vulva
The vulva Has lateral folds of skin called ____ ____ that join anteriorly at the mons pubis Labia majora
The vulva has thinner more medial folds of skin called the ____ _____ that join anteriorly at the clitoris Labia minora
The _____ is the opening between the labia containing the openings for the urethra and the vagina Vestibule
the _____ is the female nodule of erectile tissue analagous to the penis in males Clitoris
_______ is Produced by ovarian follicles exposed to FSH, Stimulates maturation of female sex organs estrogen
_______ stimulates the development of secondary characteristics during puberty estrogen
What are the secondary sexual characteristics of females 1.Development of mammary glands and breasts 2. Broad pelvis 3. Increased adipose deposition 4. Increased blood supply to skin 5. Development of body hair
______ is Produced by the corpus luteum after ovulation Projesterone
What is the major role of progesterone development and maintenance of uterine lining in pregnancy and also inhibits uterine contractions and dilation of the cervix
What are the 2 female reproductive cycles 1. Ovarian cycle 2. menstrual cycle
What is the ovarian cycle monthly formation and release of secondary oocyte and events in the ovary in anticipation of pregnancy
What is the menstrual cycle repetitive changes in the uterine lining that causes monthly menstrual bleeding
Female reproductive Cycles continue from puberty until ______ which is the cessation of reproductive cycles menopause
One day one of the ovarian cycle ____ causes anterior pituitary to release FSH and LH GnRH
______ promotes several primary follicles to develop, One becomes dominant and continues to develop, the others stop development during ovarian cycle fsh
During the ovarian cycle FSH causes primary follicles to secrete ______ beginning day 7 then primary follicles become secondary follicles estrogen
During the ovarian cycle Rapid rise in estrogen occurs, peaking at day 12 which causes the release of more GnRH from the ___________ hypothalamus
During the ovarian cycle ____ causes LH to be released which produces a sharp increase in LH (and some FSH) on day 13 GnRH
During the ovarian cycle High levels of LH cause ovulation of the oocyte on day 14 then the empty follicle is converted into the ______ _____ corpus luteum
______ ________ produces high levels of estrogen and progesterone Corpus luteum
During the ovarian cycle ______exerts a negative feedback effect which inhibits GnRH, FSH, and LH production Progesterone
Without fertilization,____ _____ degenerates which causes a loss of estrogen and progesterone between days 25-28 of the ovarian cycle corpus luteum
What are the 3 phases of the menstrual cycle 1. Menstruation 2. Proliferative phase 3. Secretory phase
________ cycle Refers to monthly changes in the endometrium each month which occurs in response to changes in estrogen and progesterone levels Menstrual cycle
______ begins on day one of the menstrual cycle and occurs in response to low estrogen and progesterone levels Menstruation
Menstruation causes break down in the ______ _____ uterine lining
______ _________ is stimulated by estrogen produced by the developing follicles and causes a build up in the endometrium Proliferative phase
Proliferative phase ends at ________ ovulation
the _______ _____ Begins at ovulation and ends at day 1 of menstruation it is Controlled by hormones from the corpus luteum and Estrogen continues endometrial thickening Secretory phase
During the secretory phase ________ stimulates the formation of blood vessels and glands in the uterine lining to prepare endometrium for an embryo Progesterone
If no fertilization occurs, ________ and _______ levels drop and the lining is sloughed off (menstration) estrogen ; progesterone
Created by: hmurray90



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