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SOC 101 T#1 T&M

Terms from T1 - Theory & Methodology

Missing Terms from this section Concept and Variable
Manifest Functions the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern (the obvious purpose something serves in society)
Latent Functions unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern (the hidden, not so obvious purpose something serves in society)
Anomie a condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals because people are in a state of confusion which results from rapid change in society
Collective Conscience the shared beliefs, values, ideas that come from the common experiences that characterize people living in a primitive society with mechanical solidarity
Mechanical Solidarity social bonds based on common sentiments and shared moral values often found in primitive types of society where peoples’ experiences are much the same
Organic Solidarity social bonds based on specialization and interdependence, characteristic of a modern society with a high level of division of labor in which every part of society is interdependent and integrated and every part has an important purpose
False Consciousness the belief that everything in the system is o.k. and that we deserve what we get because that is what our religion, politics, parents, and everyone in society tell us–so we don’t challenge the system
Alienation The experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness in social life which comes from the separation that workers feel from their product, the work process, their co-workers and worst of all, from themselves
Capitalism An economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are privately owned
Class Consciousness a group’s realization of their oppression just before they unite and ultimately bring about a REVOLUTION
Revolution the overthrow of one POLITICAL system in order to establish another
Socialism An economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are collectively owned
Communism the economic system characterized by each person voluntarily giving to society according to his/her ability and receiving from society according to her/his need—after the government has withered away
W I Thomas Theorem/Self Fulfilling Prophecy what people believe to be true is indeed true—at least for them, “Situations that are defined as real become real in their consequences”
Generalized Other Widespread cultural norms and values we use as a reference in evaluating ourselves (the “they” out there with which we compare ourselves)
Looking Glass Self a self-image based on how we think others see us; a mirror-image reflection of the self provided by the reaction of others to one’s behavior (if you all fall asleep in class, I decide I am boring)
Independent Variable causal factor (x)
Dependent Variable effect (y)
Validity precision in measuring exactly what one intends to measure
Reliability consistency in measurement
Hypothesis statement of a possible relationship between two (or more) variables
Correlation a relationship by which two (or more) variables change together
Cause and Effect a relationship in which change in one variable causes change in another variable
Participant Observation a research method by which investigators systematically observe people while joining in their routine activities
Experiment a research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions
Existing Sources a research method in which investigators use documents such as official records, newspapers, books, diaries; films and videos; garbology, etc.
Survey a research method in which subjects respond to a series of statements or questions in a questionnaire or an interview
Created by: eduktd