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Nerves

QuestionAnswer
nervous system main goal communication
sensory input sensory info is gathered be receptors and relayed to the brain and spinal cord *senses to brain*
integration sensory info is processed *brain*
motor output activation of effectors to produce a response *reacting to stimulus*
anatomical divisions of nervous system central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS)
3 parts of communication sensory input, integration, motor output
Central Nervous system (CNS) compromised of brain and spinal cord integrative and control centers
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) compromised of cranial and spinal nerves, ganglia communication lines between the CNS and the rest of the body
ganglia connective central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
functional divisions of nervous system afferent and efferent
afferent - another name sensory
efferent - another name motor
afferent (sensory) relays sensory info to the CNS somatic and visceral (internal organ) sensory nerve fibers
efferent (motor) relays motor info from the CNS motor nerve fibers conducts impulses from the CNS to effectors (muscles and glands)
parts of PNS sensory and motor division
somatic vs autonomic voluntary vs involuntary
divisions of motor division somatic and autonomic nervous system
somatic nervous system somatic (voluntary) motor nerve fibers conducts impulses from the CNS to the skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous system (ANS) visceral (involuntary) motor nerve fibers conducts impulses from the CNS to cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands
divisions of ANS sympathetic and parasympathetic division
sympathetic division mobilizes body systems during activity :fight-or-flight"
parasympathetic division conserves energy promotes house-keeping functions during rest "rest-and-digest"
neuron characteristics excitability (respond to a stimulus) conductivity (transmit an electrical signal) secretory (releases neurotransmitters) amitotic (no longer divide after fetal development
neuron anatomy dendrites cell body (soma) axon hillock (trigger zone) axon myelin sheath node of Ranvier synaptic knobs
dendrites receptive regions branches outside of nucleus
cell body "soma" biosynthetic (use chemicals to create things) center and receptive region surrounds the nucleus and has dendrite branches
nucleus middle of cell body and dendrites creates proteins
axon hillock "trigger zone" determines if signals exceed threshold and fire action potential start branch of axon
axon impulse-generating and conducting region long branch extending from cell body
myelin sheath protective insualtion for nerve cell axon coming from cell body has nerve fiber
myelin sheath gap spaces on axon between Schwann cells contains node of Ranvier
node of Ranvier speed and timing of delivery of impulses from one neuron to another within myelin sheath gaps
synaptic knobs transfer of nueron stimulants, communication between nuerons located at the axon terminal, where nueron touches another nueron
nucleolus within nucleus growth of developing nuerons
chromatophillic substance rough ER snynthesize the cell's proteins lines outsdie the nucles, within the cell body
impulse direction of axon away from cell body
Shwann cell forms the myelin sheath blue circles within myelin sheath
terminal branches end of axon, mutli branch communicate with other cells
axon terminals end of terminal branches secretory regions
nerves grouping of nuerons
nerve breakdown nerve -> fasicles -> nuerons
what surrounds the nerve epinuerium
what surrounds the fasicles perinuerium
what surrounds the nuerons endonuerium
nerves contains blood vessels
synpases where nuerons communicate with other cells
presynaptic membrane faces plasma membrane of another nueron when action potential arrives, it relases nuerotransmitters
postsynpatic membrane may be another nueron, all 3 muscle types, or a gland reicves nuerotranmitters from presynpatic membrane
synpatic cleft chemical signaling and nueral communcation lays between two nuerons
chemical synpases transmit signals from one nueron to another using nuerotransmitters
nueron contains mitochondria synaptic vessels which contain nuerotransmitters calcium goes into the nueron
oligodendrocytes form myelin sheath
ependymal cells produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
astrocytes from the blood brain barrier regulate microenvironment most abundant of the neuroglia within cell body
microglia white blood cells that fight pathogens
nuerolgia - CNS oligodendrocytes ependymal cells astrocytes microglia
nuerolgia - PNS Satelitte cells Sschwann cells
Satelitte cells regulate microenvironemnt surround cell body of a nueron
Schwann cells form myelin sheath
potentials electrical signals that travel through neurons
graded potential change in membrane potential in reponse to input from other nuerons stimulus-depend opening of ligand-gated channels short distance lose strenght as they travel through nueron depolarize or hyperpolarize
action potential membrane potential repidly rises and falls long distance depolarize only all-or-nothing not stimulus-dependent reproduce along the axon
3 main stages of action poteitnal depolarization, repolarization, and refreactory period
nerve impulse goal cause the release of nuerotransmitters,which will influence an adjacnet cell
graded poteinal characterisitcs occur within dendrites and cell body utulize chemically-gated ion channels (Na+ and Cl-) Excittory or inhibitory decremental short-distance signals
decremental effects decrease with distance
why does membrane potential decrease with distance - gp current is lost through "leaky" plasma membrane, the voltage declines with distance from the stimulus (voltage is decremental)
gp - a nueron sending a signal has an intenerla voltage of -70 mV - resting membrane potential (RMP)
gp - nuerotransmitters cause ___ to open chemically-gated ion channels
if chemically gated sodium ion channels open - gp Na+ will travel down its concentration gradient, into the cell
Na+ is ___ charged, __ the voltage of the cell positvely, increasing - excitatory post synaptic potential (EPSP)
if chemically gated chloride ion channels open - gp CL- will travel down its concentration gradient, into the cell
Cl- is __ charged, ___ the voltage of the cell negatively, decreasing inhibitory post synaptic potential (IPSP)
if __ is reached in the axon hillock, __ is generated -55 mV, action potential
what is it called when a cell increases in voltage depolarization - membrane potnetial moves toward 0 mV, the inside becomes less negative (more postive) slope goes up
what is it called when a cell decreases in voltage hyperpolarization - the membrane potnetial increases (bets more negative), the inside becomes more negative (less postive) after slope, it goes under
what is it called when a cell returns to resting membrane potential repolarization slope goes down
action potential characteristics occurs within the axon (begins in the axon hillock and terminates in the synpaptic knobs) uses voltage-gated ion chanells (Na+ and k+) propogated excitatory only all or none
propagated effects are maintained
when -55mV, threshold is reached within the axon hillock action potential occurs open voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels Na+ travels down concentration gradient, into cell (+30 mV) Voltage-gated K+ ion channels slower, open once +30 Mv reached (K+ will travel down concentration gradient, out of cell, cell hyperpolarizes -80mV)
elease of nuerotransmitters +30 mV wave reaches synaptic knobs, causes opening of voltage-gated calcium ion channels -> calcium travels down concentration gradient, into the cell causes the exocytosis (release) of neurotransmitter
___ pump and __ will return the cell to RMP Na+/K+ and K+ leak channels -80mV to -70 mV
Refractory period impossible or difficult to generate an action protential
absoulte refractory period nueron is unable to generate another action potential big slope
relative refractory period stronger than typical stimulus is needed to generate another action potential slope goes down, and goes under and rests
conduction velocity what impacts action potential velocoty - axon diamter (large diameter transmits action potentials faster) and myelination (continous conudction and saltary conduction)
continuous conduction myelin is absent, slower signals Voltage gated Na+ and K+ channels regenerate action potnetial at each point along axon, voltage no decay conudction slow - takes time for ions + gates of channel proteisn to move must occur before voltage regeneration
saltatory conduction myelin is present, faster signals myelin keeps current in axons (no voltage decay auto) action potentials are only generated in the meylin sheath gaps and appear to jump rapidly from gap to gap
Created by: study222
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