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Section 7

Review Questions from Section 7

An ________________ is when the body launches an attack against a harmless foreign substance allergy
For people with asthma, the ___________ of a harmless airborne particle displayed on the cell membrane of macrophages act as allergens and trigger an allergic response antigens
During an allergy attack, what happens to the bronchi and bronchioles that makes them narrower? the spirally arranged muscle in their walls contracts
What type of cells are responsible for releasing histamine and other chemicals that trigger an inflammatory response during an allergy attack? mast cells
What parts of the lungs are affected during an allergy attack? the bronchi and bronchioles
What happens to the blood vessels in the bronchi and bronchioles during an allergy attack? they widen and local capillaries leak fluid
When the body reacts to allergens and the B-cells are stimulated to produce antibodies, where do those antibodies attach themselves? to the surface of mast cells in the walls of bronchi and bronchioles
Any substance that triggers and allergic response in a person is known as what? Allergen
What is the name for an excessive and inappropriate response by the immune system to a substance that is normally harmless, and which can cause, for example, inflammation or skin rashes? allergic response
A liquid that contains weakened or dead versions of a pathogen that still display the antigens of the pathogen but do not cause the disease is known as what? a vaccine
What are the two places of the body where a vaccine is normally injected? the dermis or skeletal muscle
Vaccines take advantage of the fact that our immune system will react much faster to a pathogen when it encounters it for the ______________ time. second
The bones in the human body are made up of what two materials? collagen and mineral salts
What is the main mineral salt that makes up our bones? calcium phosphate
Which mineral salt is responsible for make our bones hard? calcium phosphate
Which type of bone makes up the core of our bones? spongy bone
Which type of bone makes up the outer layer of our bones? compact bone
What is the name of the outer membrane that protects our compact bone? the periosteum
What is the second hardest tissue in the body after tooth enamel? compact bone
The microscopic, parallel weight-bearing pillars that make up compact bone are called what? osteons
Collagen fibers run diagonally through the layers of what part of the compact bone? the osteons
What is found in the central canal of each osteon? vessels and nerves
What type of cells are found between the concentric layers of the osteons? osteocytes
What type of cells maintain our bones? osteocytes
Do osteons generally follow the length of the bone or lines of stress? the length of the bone
Does spongy bone generally follow the length of the bone or lines of stress? lines of stress
The spaces within spongy bone can be filled with what two substances? yellow bone marrow or red bone marrow
What is the name for the process by which our bones are constantly adjusted in response to the loads imposed on them when we stand or move? remodeling
What are the two types of bone cells that work to change the shape and structure of our bones? osteoclasts and osteoblasts
Which type of bone cell clings to the surface of bone? osteoclasts
Which type of bone cell secretes enzymes that digest collagen? osteoclasts
Which type of bone cell secrets acids that break down calcium salts? osteoclasts
Which type of bone cell burrows deep into bone, creating tunnels that are invaded by other cells? osteoclasts
Which type of bone cell deposits new bone tissue? osteoblasts
As osteoblasts create new bone tissue, the cells that get buried in the process become ________________, which will maintain the new bone tissue osteocytes
Which two glands are involved in controlling calcium levels in the blood? the parathyroid gland and the thyroid gland
Which type of ions are essential for body processes such as muscle contraction, blood clotting, cell division, and nerve impulses? calcium ions
Where is 99 percent of the calcium stored in our body? inside our bones
Which hormone is released by the parathyroid gland to trigger osteoclast activity when calcium levels in the blood drop? PTH (parathyroid hormone)
Which hormone is released by the thyroid gland to inhibit the osteoclasts and encourage bone production when calcium levels in the blood rises? calcitonin
The hormone calcitonin is released by what gland in order to inhibit the osteoclasts and encourage new bone production? the thyroid gland
The hormone PTH is released by what gland in order to trigger osteoclast activity? the parathyroid gland
Created by: St Rita SD
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