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Ch. 9 Genetics

Intro to Genetics

heredity the passage of genetic instructions from one generation to the next generation
trait specific characteristic such as height or color
genetics study of heredity
purebred offspring of many generations that have the same form of a trait
gene a sequence of DNA that determines a trait and is passed from parent to offspring
allele different forms of a gene
dominant allele an allele whose trait ALWAYS shows up in the organism when the allele is present
recessive allele an allele that is hidden whenever the dominant allele is present
hybrid an offspring of crosses that has two different alleles for a trait
probability a number that describes how likely it is that a particular event will occur
Punnett square a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
phenotype an organism's physical appearance or visible trait
genotype an organism's genetic makeup or allele combinations
homozygous having two identical alleles for a particular gene
heterozygous having two different alleles for a particular gene
incomplete dominance a situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another allele, red flowers and white flowers make pink flowers
codominance a situation in which both alleles for a gene are expressed equally like water and oil; red flower and white flower make red and white flowers
multiple alleles three or more possible alleles of a gene that determine a trait
polygenic inheritance the inheritance of traits that are controlled by two or more genes, such as height in humans
meiosis The process that occurs in the formation of sex cells (sperm and egg) by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half
Created by: muellershauna
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