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Section 4

Review Questions from Section 4

QuestionAnswer
This "inner structure" of the brain relays sensory images to the cerebral cortex thalamus
This "inner structure" of the brain edits and filters input, preventing the cerebrum from going into information overload thalamus
This "inner structure" of the brain is the control center of the autonomic nervous system the hypothalamus
Which branch of the nervous system automatically regulates heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate? the autonomic nervous system (ANS)
This "inner structure" of the brain oversees whether we feel hungry or thirsty the hypothalamus
Which regulates our internal body temperature- the thalamus or the hypothalamus? the hypothalamus
Which inner structure of the brain is responsible for waking us up after a good night's sleep? the hypothalmus
Which of the following is NOT a function of the hypothalamus? A) wake us up after sleeping B) regulate internal temperature C) relay sensory images to the cerebral cortex D) regulate heart rate relay sensory information to the cerebral cortex
The midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata make up what part of the brain? the brain stem
Which of the following is NOT part of the brain stem? A) thalamus B) pons C) medulla D) midbrain thalamus
Which part of the brain provides the pathways for the axons carrying messages between the spinal cord and the "higher" parts of the brain? the brain stem
Which part of the brain stem controls movement of the eyes and head as things change around us? the midbrain
Which part of the brain stem relays signals between the motor cortex of the cerebrum and the cerebellum? the pons
Which part of the brain stem regulates heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure? the medulla
How many lobes does the cerebellum have? two - left and right
What part of the brain enables the body to maintain its posture and move in a smooth and coordinated way? the cerebellum
What is the name for the long, thin process that extends from a neuron's cell body and carries signals to another neuron or muscle fiber? axon
What is the name for the liquid in which our brains float? cerebrospinal fluid
What is the name for the cavities in the brain that produce cerebrospinal fluid? ventricles
Approximately how much cerebrospinal fluid is produced each day? one pint
From what substance is cerebrospinal fluid produced? blood carefully filtered through clusters of special capillaries
Approximately how much of the heart's output of blood does the brain demand? one-fifth
How many ventricles are found in the brain? four
What is the name for the broad canals where cerebrospinal fluid is sent after it has done its job nurturing and protecting the brain? sinuses
The central nervous system of our body is formed by the brain and the _____________________. spinal cord
The central nervous system of our body is formed by the spinal cord and the __________________. brain
What are the two main parts of the body's nervous system? central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
The central nervous system is linked to the rest of the body via the _____________ nervous system. peripheral nervous system
The paired cranial nerves supply mainly which parts of the body? the head and neck
Each nerve contains thousands, and sometimes millions of parallel ________, which are collected into bundles. axons
Which type of neurons carry signals TOWARD the central nervous system? sensory neurons
Which type of neurons carry signals AWAY from the central nervous system? motor neurons
True or false- most nerves only carry axons of either sensory or motor neurons, not both False- most nerves carry axons of both sensory and motor neurons
What is the name for the layer of support cells that form layers of insulation around both sensory and motor neurons? myelin sheath
Is signal transmission faster in insulated or uninsulated neurons? it is much faster in insulated neurons
Which parts of the body do spinal nerves supply- the head and neck, or the rest of the body? the rest of the body
Which part of the nervous system is a network of nerves with branches reaching even the farthest extremity? peripheral nervous system
In a nerve, what is the name for the small gaps between one support cell and the next? nodes
Which part of the central nervous system acts as a conduit for information to and from all parts of the body? the spinal cord
What is a cable-like bundle of neurons that relay signals between the central nervous system and the body? nerve
What is the name for a nervous system cell that generates and transmits electrical signals? neuron
The part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and the spinal cord is known as what? the central nervous system
A spinal nerve has how many roots? two- the back root and the front root
The nerves in the body (excluding those in the head and neck) connect with the spinal cord via what? spinal nerves
Which of the spinal nerve roots carries sensory information? the back root
What type of information does the front root of a spinal nerve carry? motor information
In the spinal cord, is the white matter on the inside or the outside of the gray matter? on the outside
In the spinal cord, the gray matter is surrounded by what? white matter
Signals coming into the spinal cord arrive via which type of neurons? sensory neurons
Signals leaving the spinal cord travel via what type of neurons? motor neurons
When skeletal muscles receive a signal which causes them to contract and move, it will have arrived via which type of neurons? motor neurons
Where are linking neurons found in the spinal cord? in the gray matter
If a signal coming into the spinal cord wants to communicate with the brain, it will travel there by way of: A) linking neurons B) white matter C) gray matter D) skeletal muscles the white matter
In order to move our arm, a signal will travel along a motor neuron to: A) skeletal muscles B) smooth muscle C) cardiac muscle D) glands skeletal muscles
Sensations such as heat or pain are carried on which root of a spinal nerve? the back root
When we use the phrase "emotional brain", we are talking about the _____________ system limbic
The __________ system is a group of structures located within the brain that is involved with memory and emotions limbic
Which part of the limbic system is known as its fear coordinator, altering the hypothalamus in times of danger? the amygdala
Which part of the limbic system revs up the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system in times of danger or fear? the hypothalamus
In times of danger, extra blood is diverted to which parts of the body? heart, brain, and muscles
In times of danger, what hormone is released by the adrenal glands to reinforce the actions of the autonomic nervous system? epinephrine
Which part of the brain is responsible for deciding what action to take in times of danger and fear? the prefrontal cortex
What part of the limbic system is activated first when we see or hear something scary? the amygdala
What part of the brain is known as the thinking part of the cerebral cortex? the prefrontal cortex
When the prefrontal cortex has decided that the body should run away from a threat it sends messages to what two other parts of the brain? the cerebellum and the basal nuclei
What is the name for the masses of gray matter deep within the cerebrum's white matter? basal nuclei
When the prefrontal cortex has decided that the body should run away from a threat, which part of the brain decides on the best strategy for running away? the cerebellum
Which part of the brain calculates the extent and sequence of muscle contractions required to run away from a threat? the cerebellum
Once the cerebellum has decided on a strategy for running away from a threat, to what part of the brain does it send this idea? the primary motor cortex (by way of the thalamus)
Which part of the brain works on detailed patterns of movement when planning a strategy for running away from a threat? the basal nuclei
Which part of the brain works on "stopping" and "starting" when planning a strategy for running away from a threat? the basal nuclei
Once the basal nuclei has completed a strategy for the detailed patterns of movement required for running away from a threat, to what part of the brain does it send these ideas? the premotor cortex (by way of the thalamus)
Which part of the brain initiates movement when the body needs to run away from a threat? the primary motor cortex
The parasympathetic and sympathetic are the two divisions of what system of the body? the autonomic nervous system
Which system of the body controls smooth muscles in internal organs? the autonomic nervous system
Which system of the body controls cardiac muscles in the heart? the autonomic nervous system
What are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system that balance one another to maintain near constant conditions in the body? the sympathetic and parasympathetic
When the body is at rest, which division of the autonomic nervous system will be dominant - sympathetic or parasympathetic? parasympathetic
When the body experiences a fall in blood pressure, which division of the autonomic nervous system becomes dominant- sympathetic or parasympathetic? sympathetic
When the body experiences a rise in blood pressure, which division of the autonomic nervous system becomes dominant- sympathetic or parasympathetic? parasympathetic
Which system of the body is responsible for processes such as growth, puberty, cell metabolism, and the body's reaction to stress? the endocrine system
Which system of the body releases hormones into the bloodstream the endocrine system
Which system of the body deals with transmitting electrical signals and has short-term results? the nervous system
Are the effects of hormones on the body short-term or long-term? long term
Which of the glands is considered to be the most important, and also controls some other endocrine glands? the pituitary gland
Which gland is most important in childhood in activating parts of the immune system? the thymus gland
Which part of the endocrine system controls levels of glucose in the blood? pancreas
Which part of the brain and endocrine system releases hormones that control the pituitary gland? the hypothlamus
Which two glands control blood calcium levels? the thyroid and parathyroid
Which part of the endocrine system controls metabolism? the thyroid
Which parts of the endocrine system control reproduction? the ovaries and testes
Which part of the endocrine system controls the internal body clock? the pineal gland
Which part of the endocrine system prepares the body for stress and helps control the metabolic rate of cells? the adrenal glands
Created by: St Rita SD
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