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Unit 4 Human Phys

The Muscular System

what are responsible for all types of body movement muscles
what are the three basic muscle types skeletal, cardiac, smooth
attached to bones or, for some facial muscles, to skin skeletal muscle
walls of the heart cardiac msucle
mostly in walls of hollow visceral organs smooth muscle
single very long, cylindrical, multi nucleate cells, with very obvious striations skeletal muscle
branching chains of cells, uni nucleate, striations, intercalated discs cardiac muscle
single, fusiform, uni nucleate, no striations smooth muscle
voluntary, via the nervous system skeletal muscle
involuntary, has a pacemaker, nervous system controls, hormones cardiac muscle
involuntary, nervous system controls, hormones, chemicals stretch smooth muscle
slow to fast contractions, not rhythmic skeletal muscle
slow contractions, is rhythmic cardiac muscle
very slow contractions, sometimes rhythmic smooth muscle
how are muscles named (6 things) direction of muscle fibers, size, location, number of origins, shape, action
example of named by muscle fibers rectus (straight)
example of named by size maximus (largest)
example of named by location temporalis (temporal bone)
example of named by number of origins triceps (three heads)
example of named by shape deltoid (triangular)
example of named by action flexor and extensor (flexes or extends)
skeletal muscle functions (4) produce movement, stabilize joints, maintain posture, generate heat
decreases the angle of the joint, brings bones closer together flexion
increases the angle between two bones, draws bones apart extension
movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis, when you shake you head "no" rotation
movement of a limb away from the mid line abduction
movement of a limb toward the mid line adduction
common movements (5) flexion, extension, rotation, abduction, adduction
lifting the foot so that the superior surface approaches the skin dorsiflexion
depressing the foot so toes are pointing down plantar flexion
turn sole of foot medially inversion
turn sole of foot laterally eversion
move thumb to touch the tips of other fingers opposition
special movements (7) dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, inversion, eversion, opposition, supination, pronation
bringing your hand to your shoulder is an example of what? flexion
bringing your hand from your shoulder to point at the ground is an example of what? extension
common in ball and socket joints rotation
from a standing position turning your foot outward is an example of what? lateral rotation
from a standing position turning your foot inward is an example of what? medial rotation
moving your arm away form your side is an example of what? abduction
moving your arm towards the mid line of your body is an example of what? adduction
forearm rotates laterally so that the palm faces anteriorly supination
forearm rotates medially so that the palm faces posteriorly pronation
true or false are cells surrounded and bundled by connective tissue true
consists of a single muscle cell muscle fiber
bundle of muscle cells fascicle
encloses single muscle fiber endomysium
cord of collagen fibers that attaches a muscle to a bone tendon
a tube through which the blood circulates in the body blood vessels
wraps around a fascicle (bundle) of muscle fibers perimysium
covers the entire skeletal muscle epimysium
specialized plasma membrane of muscle cells sarcolemma
long organelles inside muscle cell myofibril
dark band is also know was what band? A-band
contains the entire length of the thick filaments (myosin) dark band
light band is also known as what band I-band
contains only thin filaments (actin) light band
delineate the lateral borders of sarcomeres and are the smallest functional unit in striated muscle z discs
the area of the A-band without thin filaments H-zone
are myofibrils aligned to give distinct bands yes
contractile unit of a muscle fiber sarcomere
reaction that occurs in the mitochondria and uses oxygen to break down glucose into carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy aerobic respiration
how much ATP does aerobic respiration produce 36 ATP
when does aerobic respiration occur rest and light to moderate exercise
reaction that breaks down glucose without oxygen anaerobic respiration
this function produces lactic acid anaerobic respiration
how much ATP does anaerobic respiration produce 2 ATP
what does lactic acid produce muscle fatigue
what are the two types of energy for muscle contraction aerobic and anaerobic respiration
when a muscle is fatigued is it unable OR able to contract with a stimulus unable
what is a common cause for muscle fatigue oxygen debt
increasing acidity (from lactic acid) and lack of ATP causes the muscle to contract more OR less less
oxygen must be WHAT to tissue to remove oxygen deficit repaid
is oxygen reunited to get rid of accumulated lactic acid and make ATP reserves yes
what type of exercise results in stronger, more flexible muscles with greater resistance to fatigue aerobic exercise
examples of aerobic exercise biking, jogging, walking
increases blood supply, increase of number of mitochondria, and ability to store O2 aerobic exercise
makes body metabolism more efficient, improves digestion, coordination, skeleton strength aerobic exercise
improves hear and lung efficiency, no significant increase in muscle size aerobic exercise
what type of exercise results in muscle increase in size and strength resistance exercise
enlargement of individual muscle cells, making more filaments resistance exercise
increase in amount of connective tissue resistance exercise
what are the two ways we can get energy for muscle contractions aerobic and anaerobic respiration
what happens to the thick and thin filaments during contraction they overlap and come together
why is the sarcomere referred to as the smallest contractile unit of muscle fiber because it is the first muscle to get shorter then causing the rest to
what type of tissue is present in skeletal muscle connective tissue
what causing striations in skeletal muscle the repeating actin and myosin causing hick and thin fibers
when a muscle is contracting what happens to the A-band stays the same
when a muscle is contracting what happens to the I-band shortens and nearly disappears
when a muscle is contracting what happens to the H-zone completely disappears
what is the purpose of the z-disc helps the thin filaments attach and stay aligned
what is the purpose of the m-line attaches the thick filaments and keep in place
Created by: fam514
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