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A&P2C25,27,28 Exam 5

A&P II Ch. 25, 27, & 28 Exam 5

What is the organ system that processes food, extracts nutrients from it, and eliminates the residue. Digestive System
Selective intake of food ingestion
mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into a usable form by the body digestion
uptake of nutrient molecules into the epithelial cells of the digestive tract and then into blood and lymph absorption
absorbing water and consolidating the indigestible residue into feces compaction
elimination of feces defecation
what are the two anatomical subdivisions of the digestive system Digestive tract & accessory organs
What does the digestive tract consist of? Mouth, Pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines
What are the accessory organs? Teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and panceras
What is the name for the sheets of connective tissue that suspend the digestive organs in place in the abdominal cavity? Mesentery
What are the functions of the oral cavity? Ingestion, swallowing, other sensory response to food/ Chewing & chemical digestion
How many teeth are in babies? 20 teeth
How many teeth are in adults? 32 teeth
Once food is chewed up, the saliva contains an enzyme that begins starch digestion in the mouth. What is the name for this enzyme? Salivary amylase
Saliva is secreted into the mouth via.. Salivary glands, parotid glands, submandibular gland, sublingual gland
What causes salivation? Salivary nuclei in the medulla oblongata & pons respond to signals generated by presence of food causes salivation
What is the purpose of the lower esophageal sphincter? Prevent stomach contents from regurgitating into the esophagus
What is the muscular sac that functions as a food storage organ that converts bolus into chyme? Stomach
What is bolus? Soft, chewed food
Chyme Creamy Mass
What are the four regions of the stomach? Cardiac region, Fundic region, Body Corpus, Pyloric region
What do mucous cells secrete? Mucus
What do parietal cells secrete? hydrochloric acid (HCI) & Intrinsic Factor
What do chief cells secrete? gastric lipase & pepsinogen
What do enteroendocrine cells secrete? hormones and paracrine messen
What activates pepsin, liquefies food to form chyme, and destroys ingested pathogens due to low pH Hydrochloric acid
What gets broken down by HCI to pepsin, which digests proteins Pepsinogen
Plays small role in digesting fats of lipids (along with lingual lipase in the saliva) Gastric Lipase
Essential to absorption of vitamin B12 by the small intestine ( which is needed to synthesize hemoglobin) Intrinsic factor
Why is it important that food enter the duodenum slowly? Neutralize the stomach acid, Digest nutrients little by little
Where does most digestion and nearly all absorption of nutrients occur? Small Intestine
The stomach is protected from the harsh digestive enzyme it secretes because it contains a thick what? Mucous Coat
What between the epithelial cells, which prevent gastric juices from degrading underlying connective tissue? Tight Junctions
What happens if the protective measures break down in the stoamch? Can result in inflammation and peptic water
The liver is the body's largest gland and functions to secrete what into bile ducts and the gall bladder. Bile
The what of the liver absorb glucose, amino acids, and iron from the blood after a meal, remove and degrade hormones and toxins, and break down stored glycogen to release glucose into the blood. Hepatocytes
What is the function of the gall bladder? Store & concentrate bile by absorbing water & electrolytes
What serves as both an endocrine gland and exocrine gland? Pancreas
List functions of trypsinogen (trypsin) Gets converted into trypsin, which digests dietary proteins
List functions of pancreatic amylase digest starch
List functions of pancreatic lipase digest fat
List functions of ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease digest RNA & DNA respectively
List functions of sodium bicarbonate neutralizes HCI
What events occur in the duodenum? Receives stomach contents pancreatic juices and bile, stomach acid is neutralized here, fats are physically broken up by bile acid, pepsin is inactivated by increased pH, pancreatic enzymes take over the job of chemical digestion
What occurs in the jejunum? Most digestion and nutrient absorption occur here
What are the 3 divisions of the small intestine? Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
Fingerlike projections that help to increase surface area, and are covered with two kinds of cells, absorptive cells and goblet cells. Villi
What do the blood capillaries of the villi absorb? Most of the nutrients
What do the lacteals of the villi absorb? Most lipids
The microvilli contain ___________, which increases the absorptive surface area and carries out some of the final stages of enzymatic digestions as the chyme must contact this border for digestion to occur (called contact digestion) brush border
What secrete an abundance of bicarbonate-rich mucus that serves to neutralize stomach acid and shield the mucosa of the duodenum form its erosive effects. duodenal glands
What is the process that occurs in the small intestines to mix and churn digested foods (ring-like contractions) Segmentation
What is to move material along the small intestine (wave-like contractions) Peristalsis
Where does starch digestion begin? In the mouth
How does glucose get reabsorbed? Sodium-glucose transport proteins and then passes into the blood capillaries of the villus
What are enzymes that digest proteins and begin their work in the stomach (pepsin) Proteases (peptidases)
_______________ & ______________ are types of proteases that continue digesting proteins in the small intestines. Trypsin & Chymotrysin
Where do free amino acids go to be reabsorbed? Absorbed into intestinal epithelial cells and then enter blood stream via blood capillaries
What are enzymes that digest fats into fatty acids and glycerides Lipids
What are enzymes that break down DNA & RNA into nucleotides to be reused in the cell to produce new DNA & RNA strands Nucleases
What happens if fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamins A, D, E, and K are not ingested with fat-containing foods? They are not absorbed at all, but are passed in the feces and wasted
What causes diarrhea? Large intestine reabsorbs too little water, irritated by bacteria, contain high concentrations of a solute(lactose)
What occurs when fecal movement is slow and too much water is reabsorbed by the large intestines, so the feces becomes hardened. Constipation
__________ is absorbed in the small intestine by osmosis following the absorption of salts and organic nutrients. Water
What is responsible for the compaction of fecal matter by reabsorbing water and salts. Large intestine
What is attached to the lower end of the cecum and is densely populated with lymphocytes Appendix
The bacteria found in the large intestine serve several important functions, which inculde: Ferment cellulose and other undigested carbohydrates, Help in synthesis Vitamins B & K, Form part of feces and responsible for flatus
It takes the large intestine between ___________ to reduce the residue of a meal to feces. 36-48 hours
What components make up feces? 75% water, 25% Solids, 30% bacteria, 30% undigested fiber, 10-20% fat, and small amounts of mucus and sloughed epithelial cells
What stimulates the defecation reflexes? Haustral Contractions
What are the make and female primary sex organs? Testes or ovaries
What are gametes? Sperm & egg
What are the secondary sex organs? Organs other than the gonads that are necessary for reproduction. MALE: System of ducts, glands, penis delivers sperm cells. FEMALES: Uterine tube, uterus, vagina receive sperm & harbor developing fetus.
What determines the sex of a child? Type of sperm that fertilizes mother's egg
A fetus is sexually undifferentiated until about ______ when the gonads begin to develop at the gonadal ridges 5-6 weeks
Which ducts develop into the male reproductive system mesonephric ducts
Which ducts develop into the female reproductive tract paramesonephric ducts (Mullerian)
The _____________ gene is located on the Y chromosome and codes for a protein called testes-determining factors(TDF) that initiates development of the testes and stimulates the mesonephric ducts to develop into make anatomy SRY
What is also secreted by the testes and this causes the paramesonephric ducts to degenerate. Mullerian-inhibiting factor
What causes female development to occur? Absence of androgen hormones
Male or female genitalia are completely formed by how many weeks in utero? 12 weeks
The what is homologous to the clitoris( both arise from the genital tubercle) Penis
The what is homologous to the labia majora (both arise from the labioscrotal folds) Scrotum
_____________is a disorder in which a person inherits a Y chromosome and develops testes that produce testosterone, but target cells lack receptors for it, so the individual fails to develop male secondary sex organs and thus appears to be female. Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome
When does descent of the testes into the scrotum begin as early as 6 weeks
___________ is a condition in which boys are born with undescended testes. What happens if this condition goes uncorrected? Cryptorchidism, Uncorrected cases lead to sterility or testicular cancer
The ________ is a pouch of skin, muscle, and fibrous connective tissue that contains the testes Scrotum
Skeletal muscle that contracts in cold temperatures to draw testes upward toward body and relaxes in warm weather to suspend testes furher away from body. Cremaster Muscle
Smooth muscles that contracts when cold, wrinkling skin of the scrotum to hold closer to warm body Dartos Muscle
Extensive network of veins that surround the testicular artery and spermatic cord and absorbs heat from the warm arterial blood to cool temp of testes by 1-2 degrees C Pampiniform Plexus
Sperm production begins in the testes in the _____________ Seminiferous tubules
_____________ cells are located between the seminiferous tubules in the testes and produce testosterone. Interstitial (Leydig) cells
______________ are cells that protect the germ (sperm) cells by supplying nutrients and removing wastes, and form the blood-testis barrier that separates the sperm from the immune system so not attacked by antibodies Sustentacular (Sertoli) or Nurse cells
After exiting the seminiferous tubules, sperm travel through the efferent ductules and then enter the ______________, where they undergo maturation and can be stored for up to 60 days duct of the epididymis
After exiting the epididymis, sperm enter the ________________, and then the ________________, where they empty into the urethra, which is divided into the prostatic urethra, membranous urethra, and spongy (penile) urethra. Ductus (vas) deferens; Ejaculatory ducts
Which structure forms the majority (60%) of semen? Seminal Vesicles
How does an enlarged prostate gland affect urination? It compresses the urethra
What is the purpose of the bulbourethral ( Cowper) glands? Protects the sperm by neutralizing the acidity of residual urine in the urethra
The primary function of the _____________ is to deposit semen into the vagina. penis
It contains two types of erectile tissue, the ________________________& _________________________________. Single Corpus Spongiosum; Two corpora cavernosa
Stimulates spermatogenesis to raise sperm count Follicle-Stimulating hormone(FSH)
Stimulates interstitial cells to produce testosterone luteinizing hormone (LH)
Sustain the male reproductive tract, sperm production, and libido testosterone
suppresses FSH output from the pituitary to reduce sperm production inhibin
Infertility in men is characterized by a sperm count lower than ____________ of semen. 20 to 25 million/mL
How does the stickiness of semen promote fertilization? Stick to the inner wall of the vagina and cervix, Ensure that the semen does not drain back out the vagina, sperm become active and prostaglandins thin the mucus of cervix and stimulate uterine contractions
The _____________ buffers the pH of the vagina and increases it from 3.5 to 7.5 prostatic fluid
The __________________ provides fructose and other sugars to the mitochondria of the sperm to be used as energy sources. Seminal Vesicles
The female reproductive tract develops from the paramesonephric ducts because of the absence of ______________ & _________________________. Testosterone. Mullerian-inhibiting factor (MIF)
The _______________ are the female gonads which produce egg cells (ova) and sex hormones ovaries
Unlike the male reproductive tract, the female reproductive tract tubules in which the eggs develop. How do the eggs develop? Each egg develops in its own fluid-filled follicle
What is ovulation? Bursting of the follicle and releasing the egg
The ______________ is a thick muscular chamber that opens into the vagina and serves to harbor the fetus, provides nutrition, and expel the fetus at the end of its development. uterus
What are the 3 layers of the uterine wall perimetrium, myometrium, endometrium
External serosa layer perimetrium
middle muscular layer myometrium
inner mucosa endometrium
which layer of the endometrium is shed during each menstrual period? stratum functionalis
The ________________ is a muscular tube that allows for discharge of menstrual fluid, recipient of the penis and semen, and birth of baby. vagina
what structures make up the external genitalia? mons pubis labia majora labia minora clitoris
A non-lactating breast consists mostly of what 2 types of tissue? Adipose and collagenous tissue
When is the only time a breast would contain mammary glands? Pregnancy or lactation
While most cases of breast cancer are nonhereditary, there are 2 genes that have been linked to increased risks of developing breast cancer. What are these 2 genes? BRCA1 & BRCA 2
A______________ is removal of a lump in breast tissue. Lumpectomy
A ___________________ is the removal of the breast, underlying muscle fascia, and lymph nodes. Radical Mastectomy
Stimulates developing ovarian follicles and they begin to secrete estrogen, progesterone, inhibin, and a small amount of androgen. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Responsible for ovulation Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Are feminizing hormones with widespread effects on the body estrogen
_____________ is the earliest noticeable sign of puberty and occurs when breast develop because of estrogen, progesterone, glucocorticoids, and growth hormone. Thelarche
In ________________, hair develops in the pubic and axillary regions because of stimulation by androgen hormones Pubarche
____________ is the stage of puberty in which the first menstrual period occurs. Menarche
Stimulates growth of ovaries & secondary sex organs, growth hormone secretion, responsible for feminine physique because it stimulates the deposition of fat estradiol ( a form of estrogen)
Primarily acts on the uterus preparing it for possible pregnancy in the second half of the menstrual cycle progresterone
selectively suppresses FSH secretion inhibin
_____________ is the name for the midlife change in progesterone and estrogen secretion and is accompanied by menopause. Climacteric
____________, which is the cessation of menstruation menopause
During oogenesis (egg production), diploid cells divides by meiosis to produces haploid gametes. When does this process begin? During embryonic development w/ oogonia, which multiply unitl the fifth month in utero
Which cell is the one that gets ovulated? Secondary oocytes
When does the ovum complete meiosis? when it is fertilized
During oogenesis, polar bodies get produced. What purpose do they serve? serves as a means of discarding the extra set of haploid chromosomes
What is the corpus luteum? Stimulates endometrial secretion and thickening because of secretion of progesterone and estradiol, which preps the uterus for the possibility of pregnancy.
Which hormone is detectable in urine 8-9 days after conception by a home pregnancy test and stimulates the growth of the corpus luteum and its secretion of progesterone and estrogen? Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
What causes true labor contractions? Stimulated by oxytocin (secreted by posterior pituitary) and uterine stretching
An ________________ is an incision in the vulva to widen the vaginal orifice to prevent random tearing during childbirth. Episiotomy
Which is the longest stage of labor? Early Dilation
What is colostrum? Similar to breast milk in protein and lactose, but contains 1/3 less fat. Produced during first 1 to 3 days after birth. Thin watery consistency and a cloudy yellow color. Contains IgA to protect the baby from gastroenteritis.
What is the purpose of sodium bicarbonate that is secreted by the pancreas? Helps neutralize HCI coming from the stomach as it is entering the small intestines
T/F: The gallbladder produces bile FALSE The liver produces the bile, the gallbladder just stores the bile and helps to concentrate it
the internal female genitalia includes vagina
when is is cold, the ___________ contracts and draws the testes closer to the body to keep them warm. Cremaster muscle
Hydrochloric acid (HCI) is secreted by __________ cells Parietal
Which of the following is NOT an accessory organ of the digestive tract? 1) teeth 2) salivary glands 3) esophagus 4) tongue 5) Pancrease Esophagus
Which cells located in the testes produce testosterone? Interstitial (Leydig) cells
T/F: Thelarche is the stage of puberty in which the first menstrual period occurs False: The Thelarche is the first sign of puberty in which the breast develop
What is the name for the cells that product the germ cells, provide them with nutrients, help form the blood-testis barrier, and secrete inhibin? Sustentacular cells (Sertoli cells)
What is peristalsis? Movement of material along the GI tract in a wave-like manner
Where does starch digestion begin? In the mouth, as salivary amylase is present in the saliva
Which of these is not a component of pancreatic juice? Enterokinase
Gastric Lipase and pepsinogen are secreted by which cells of the gastric glands? Chief Cells
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the __________, whereas protein digestion begins in the _________. Mouth, Stomach
T/F: Sperm are produced in the epididymis False, they mature in the epididymis and are produced in the seminiferous tubules.
____________ acts/s primarily in the uterus to thicken its lining during pregnancy. Progesterone
How many baby teeth do humans have? 20
Which male hormone stimulates the interstitial cells to produce testosterone? LH
What is cryptorchidism? Condition in which boys are born with undescended testes
T/F: The submucosa is the layer of the GI tract that contains blood vessels, nerve plexuses, and lubricating mucous glands True
Salivation is triggered by nuclei in which part of the brain? The medulla oblongata and pons
T/F: In males, FSH is the hormone that stimulates spermatogenesis to help raise sperm count True
In males and females, what are the primary sex organs? Males: Testes Females: Ovaries
Created by: SamMcG11
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