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Section 3

Review Questions from Section 3

What enables simple molecules to flow from the capillaries into the surrounding tissues? A) arterioles in the walls of tissue cells B) mitral valves in the capillary walls C) tiny openings between the cells of the capillaries tiny openings between the cells of the capillaries
Do red blood cells move slowly or quickly through the capillaries? Slowly, due to the narrowness of the capillaries
The random movement of molecules in a gar or liquid from an area of high concentration to one of low concentration until they are evenly spread out is known as A) diffusion B) dispersal C) digestion D) dichotomy diffusion
Blood returns to the heart by way of what type of blood vessels? veins
Name the two large veins that empty into the right atrium the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava
Is the layered wall of veins thicker or thinner than that of the arteries? thinner
Is the blood pressure inside veins higher or lower than that in the arteries? lower
What are larger veins equipped with to overcome the fact that because the blood pressure in veins is lower, the blood tends to flow backwards under its own weight? valves similar to those in the heart
When veins pass through __________ their contents get an extra boost, forcing more blood upward through the valves A) cardiac muscles B) cranial muscles C) skeletal muscles D) intestinal muscles skeletal muscles
What happens to valves in the veins when blood starts to flow backwards? they are closed by the blood
What is the longest and most important part of the digestive system? small intestine
Where does food go after leaving the stomach? the small intestine
Which of the following takes place in the small intestine? A) food molecules are broken down by enzymes B) food is bathed in gastric juices C) food molecules are absorbed into the bloodstream D) insulin is released into the bloodstream food molecules are broken down by enzymes, food molecules are absorbed into the bloodstream
What is the name for the proteins that speed up the rate at which chemical reactions take place? enzymes
Each kind of enzyme is suited to how many kinds of chemical reactions? just one
How are enzymes changed by the process of breaking down food molecules? they are unchanged, and can repeat the process all over again with another molecule
What is the name for the tiny projections on the wall of the small intestine? villi (singular - villus)
What is the name for the tiny projections found on the surface of the epithelial cells of the villi in the small intestine? microvilli
During digestion, what are carbohydrates broken down into? glucose
During digestion, what are proteins broken down into? amino acids
During digestion, what are fats broken down into? fatty acids
Which of the following is NOT true of the microvilli: A) they are found in the large intestine B) increase the efficiency of digestion C) increase the efficiency of the end-products of digestion D) covered in enzymes that complete digestion A) they are found in the large intestine (they are found in the small intestine)
Where do glucose and amino acids go after being digested in the small intestine? they are carried off to the liver via capillaries
Where do fatty acids go after being digested in the small intestine? they are deposited into the blood stream via lymphatic vessels
What feature of the small intestines absorbs most of the water contained in food, saliva, gastric juice, other secretions, and bile salts? the villi
bile salts aid in the digestion of: A) carbohydrates B) proteins C) fats D) liquids fats
After bile salts are absorbed by the villi in the small intestine, where are they sent for recycling? the liver
In the small intestine, what provides a massive surface where digestion and the absorption of end products can happen side by side? microvilli
What is the role of the branch of the lymphatic system found in each villus in the small intestine? to pass on fats into the bloodstream
What is our largest internal organ? the liver
What internal organ serves as our body's primary processing and manufacturing plant? the liver
What is the liver's only direct contribution to digestion? it supplies bile to the duodenum
Which of the following tasks do the cells of the liver perform? A) store nutrients B) reroute nutrients C) transform nutrients D) all of the above all of the above
From how many sources does the liver take in blood? Two
What are the names of the artery and vein that supply blood to the liver? hepatic artery and portal vein
Oxygen-rich blood from the heart travels to the liver via what? A) radial artery B) aorta C) hepatic artery D) cardiac artery hepatic artery
Food-rich blood from the alimentary canal travels to the liver via which vein? A) superior vena cava B) portal vein C) femoral vein D) basilic vein portal vein
What color is the liver? dark red
The dark red color of the liver indicates what? it has a rich blood supply
A hepatocyte is a cell found in which organ? the liver
What is the name for the six-sided units into which hepatocytes are organized? lobules
The hepatocytes of the liver are organized into six-sided units known as what? lobules
As it passes through the liver, blood is cleaned and adjusted by the cells known as ______________________. Hepatocytes
Does the bile secreted by the hepatocytes in the liver travel in the same direction as the blood or in the opposite direction? In the opposite direction, toward the duodenum
What cells in the liver are responsible for analyzing and regulating the blood's composition? hepatocytes
What cells in the liver glucose when there is too much in the blood and release it when there's too little? hepatocytes
Which of the following is NOT a function of the hepatocytes in the liver? A) store excess amino acids B) make cholesterol C) package fatty acids D) deactivate hormones Store excess amino acids
Bile plays a vital role in the digestion of what type of nutrients? A) carbohydrates B) proteins C) fats fats
In the liver, bile pigments and bile salts are combined to form what substance? bile
Which organ in the body is responsible for things like removing drugs from the blood, housing macrophages, storing and releasing glucose, and producing bile? the liver
Which of the following items are NOT stored in the liver? A) glucose B) fats C) minerals D) amino acids amino acids
Which organ in the body makes and releases digestive enzymes? the pancreas
What is the name of the glands in the pancreas that release glucagon and insulin? pancreatic islets
What is the role of glucagon and insulin? ensure our cells are never short of fuel
What is the main energy source of a cell? glucose
What are the two hormones released by the pancreatic islets? glucagon and insulin
What are the two types of hormone-producing cells in the pancreatic islets? alpha cells and beta cells
Which cells are responsible for producing glucagon? alpha cells
Which cells are responsible for producing insulin? beta cells
What is the hormone that is responsible for increasing glucose levels in the blood? glucagon
What is the hormone that is responsible for decreasing glucose levels in the blood? insulin
Which vein is known as "the highway to the liver"? the portal vein
Alpha cells and beta cells are found in what glands in the pancreas? the pancreatic islets
What is the name of the metabolic waste product made in the liver from excess amino acids? urea
True or false - metabolic wastes can poison the body? true
What organ in the body continuously filters the blood, removing waste, excess water, and excess salts? the kidneys
Water and urea are combined to form what? urine
Into how many zones is each kidney divided? three
Name the three zones of the kidneys cortex, medulla, and pelvis
Which zone of the kidneys funnels urine into the ureter? the pelvis
What is the name for the tiny blood-filtering units in the kidneys that produce urine? nephrons
Created by: St Rita SD
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