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A&P2 Ch21-23 Exam 4

A&P II ch. 21, 22, 23

The _____ system is population of cells that inhabit our organs and defend the body form agents of disease (not a true organ system) Immune
The _______ system maintains fluid valance by reabsorbing fluid balance by reabsorbing fluid fro the tissues, Lymphatic
______ is a colorless fluid that contains immune cells, such as lymphocytes and macrophages, as well as hormones, cellular debris, bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells Lymph
are compose of loosely arranged endothelial cells that overlap one another and create valve-like flaps that open and close in response to pressure changes in interstitial fluid. lymphatic capillaries
Describe the route of lymph fluid as it flow back to the blood 1st picked up by lymphatic capillaries, then flow into the collectin vessels, then flow into 1 of 6
______ is a colorless fluid that contains immune cells, such as lymphocytes and macrophages, as well as hormones, cellular debris, bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells Lymph
are compose of loosely arranged endothelial cells that overlap one another and create valve-like flaps that open and close in response to pressure changes in interstitial fluid. lymphatic capillaries
Describe the route of lymph fluid as it flow back to the blood 1st picked up by lymphatic capillaries, then flow into the collectin vessels, then flow into 1 of 6
______ is a colorless fluid that contains immune cells, such as lymphocytes and macrophages, as well as hormones, cellular debris, bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells Lymph
are compose of loosely arranged endothelial cells that overlap one another and create valve-like flaps that open and close in response to pressure changes in interstitial fluid. lymphatic capillaries
Describe the route of lymph fluid as it flow back to the blood 1st picked up by lymphatic capillaries, then flow into the collectin vessels, then flow into 1 of 6
______ is a colorless fluid that contains immune cells, such as lymphocytes and macrophages, as well as hormones, cellular debris, bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells Lymph
are compose of loosely arranged endothelial cells that overlap one another and create valve-like flaps that open and close in response to pressure changes in interstitial fluid. lymphatic capillaries
Describe the route of lymph fluid as it flow back to the blood 1st picked up by lymphatic capillaries, then flow into the collectin vessels, then flow into 1 of 6
Organ involved in hemopoiesis ( blood formation) and immunity by serving as the site where B lymphocytes become immunocompetent Red bone marrow
site of maturation for T lymphocytes and secretes hormones that regulate immunity Thymus
Primary lymphatic organs Red bone marrow thymus
most numerous lymphatic organs that cleanse the lymph and act as the site for T and B cell activation lymph nodes
patches of lymphatic tissue that guard against ingested or inhaled pathogens; include the palatine tonsils, the lingual tonsils, and pharyngeal (adenoid) tonsil Tonsils
largest lymphatic organ that function in blood production in the fetus, a blood reservoir in adults, and serves as a site for erythrocyte disposal spleen
Secondary lymphatic organs lymph nodes tonsils spleen
how does Innate(nonspecific) resistance differ from immunity Nonspecific guard equally against a broad range of pathogens and normally something you've been born with. Immunity specific defense because it results from prior exposurer to a pathogen, depends on what you have been exposed to or vaccines
environmental agents capable of producing disease, such as infectious organisms, toxic chemicals, and radiation, are known as pathogens
Includes skin and mucous membranes first line of defense
Includes defense cells, antimicrobial proteins, immune surveillance, inflammation, and fever second line of defense
mediated by the immune system (involves the B and T cells) and involves a "memory component" third line of defense
what are the bodies 3 lines of defense first line of defense second line " third line "
The _______ is dry, nutrient-poor, contains defensins, which are peptides that kill microbes by creating holes in their membranes, and is covered by an acid mantle which discourages the growth of microbes skin
the ____________ physically trap microbes in mucus and contain lysozyme, which is an enzyme that destroys bacterial cells walls. mucous membranes
the major component of areolar tissue (a type of connective tissue) that lies below the epidermis and composes part of the skin called the dermis. This substance has a sticky, gel-like consistency that makes it difficult for microbes to penetrate subepithelial areolar tissue
how are some microbes able to overcome this barrier? (subspithelial areolar tissue) they overcome it by the hyaluronidase producing the hyaluronic acid
What are the 5 types of WBC that make up the 2nd line of defense Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils Lymphocytes Monocytes
secrete toxic chemicals like hydrogen peroxide that creates a respiratory burst and killing zone around bacteria and foreign cells Neutrophils
Stand guard against parasites and allergens and kill parasitic worms by secreting toxic substances Eosinophils
Secrete chemicals like leukotrienes, histamine, and heparin that aid in the mobility and action of other WBC Basophils
Include T cells, B cells, and NK cells, which have many diverse functions Lymphocytes
mature into macrophages, which are actively phagocytic cells and may be found wandering the body or fixed in certain tissues like nervous tissue or the skin monocytes
proteins are substances that inhibit microbial reproduction and provide short-term, nonspecific resistance to pathogenic bacteria and viruses and include interferons and the complement system antimicrobial
Neutrophils Lymphocytes Monocytes Eosinophils Basophils Never 60 Let 30 Monkeys 6 Eat 3 Bananas >less than 1
proteins are secreted by certain cells infected by viruses & alert neighboring cells, help protect them from becoming infected by binding to surface receptors & activating second-messenger systems to produce proteins that defend the cell from infection Interferons
Which types of cell do interferons activate NK cells and macrophages
The ________ system is a group of 30 or more proteins that are synthesized by the liver and are activated by the presence of pathogens. Complement
How does the complement system bring about destruction of pathogens Inflammation Immune clearance phagocytesis cytolysis
release of chemicals like histamine increase blood flow and delivery of WBC to infected area Inflammation
complement proteins bind to ag-ab complexes, which are then cleared from the body by macrophages in the liver and spleen immune clearance
Complement proteins coat microbial cells to enhance phagocytosis by macrophages and neutrophils (called opsonization) Phagocytesis
Complement proteins create a membrane attack complex, which forms a hole in the target cell and the foreign or infected cell ruptures Cytolysis
Process in which natural killer (NK) cells patrol the void and detect and destroy pathogens or diseased host cells. Immune surveillance
immune surveillance occurs due to the release of ___________, which are proteins that create holes or pores in the plasma membrane of infected or foreign cells Perforins
Chemicals that induce apoptosis, or cell-death Granzymes
refers to an abnormal elevation of body temperature fever
how can fever be a good thing promotes interferon activity accelerates tissue repair inhibits reproduction of bacteria and viruses
local defensive response to tissue injury of any kind Inflammation
what are the cardinal signs of inflammation redness swelling heat pain
class of chemicals that regulate inflammation and immunity cytokines
immunity directed against a particular pathogen and involves memory, so that when re-exposed to the same pathogens, the body reacts quickly so that there is no noticeable illness specific immunity
what are the 2 types of specific immunity cellular (cell-mediated) immunity Humoral (antibody-mediated) immunity
involves t cells that directly attack and destroy pathogens and rids the body of pathogens that reside in the human cells (intracellular pathogens) Cellular (cell-mediated) immunity
involves the use of B cells of antibodies that indirectly destroy pathogens and can only be used against the extracellular stages of infectious microbes Humoral (antibody-mediated) immunity
Production of ones own antibodies or T cells as a result of infection or natural exposure to antigens is an example of natural active immunity
Production of ones own antibodies or T cell as a result of vaccination against disease is an example of artificial active immunity
the antibodies a fetus acquires from the mother's placenta or colostrum is an example of natural passive immunity
receiving injected antibodies from another person or animal is and example of artificial passive immunity
are molecules that trigger immune responses antigens
such as macrophages, dendritic, B cells, and reticular cells, present foreign antigens on their cell surface in order to activate T cells and help them recognize these foreign substances antigen-presenting cells (APC's)
What are the 4 classes of T cells involved in cellular immunity Cytotoxic T (Tc) cell Helper T (Th) cell Regulatory T (Tr) Cell Memory Cell (Tm)
carry out a direct attack on enemy cells cytotoxic T (Tc) cell
promote the action of cytotoxic T cells nd B cells helper T (Th) cell
limit the immune response so that T cells do not attack own cells Regulatory T (Tr) Cell
responsible for memory in cellular immunity memory cell (Tm)
during _________, B cell produce antibodies that bind to antigens and tag them for destruction humoral immunity
during clonal selection, B cells differentiate into _________ cells, which secrete antibodies and __________ cells, which stand guard against subsequent infection with the same pathogen Plasma memory
Name the 4 ways that antibodies render antigens useless neutralization complement fixation aggultination precipitation
secretory antibody found in mucus, saliva, tears, milk, and intestinal secretion's; provides passive immunity to newborns b/c passes in colostrum IgA
Thought to function in B cell activation IgD
stimulates release of histamine and other chemical mediators of inflammation and allergy IgE
Crosses placenta and is the first antibody to appear during a secondary immune response; involved in complement fixation IgG
First anitbody to appear during a primary immune response; involved in agglutination and complement fixation IgM
Type 1 acute hypersensitivity reactions include most common allergies and food allergies an begin within seconds of exposure. Symptoms include redness, swelling, and watery eyes. Which antibody mediates these types of reactions? IgE
When type 1 hypersensitivity reactions spread into the blood stream, anaphylactic shock may result. what drug is used to counteract the effects of systemic shock and how does this drug work? epinephrine
Type II and III hypersensitivity reactions are also known as ________ reactions, because they occur when IgG or IgM attacks antigens bound to cell surfaces and causes inflammation and complement activation. Subacute
what are some examples of type II and type III hypersensitivity reactions? blood transfusion reactions auto immune diseases like systemic lupus and acute glomeruloephritis
Type IV or delayed hypersensitivity reactions result from _______ overreaction, and symptoms typically occur 12 to 72 hours after exposure to allergen. T cells
What accounts for the delay in the onset of symptoms (type IV or delayed) Release of nonspecific and immune responses
Immunodefiency disease called______ occurs because of a hereditary lack of T and B cells, in which the person is susceptible to multiple infections and must live in a protective enclosure severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID)
How is HIV transmitted? Blood semen vaginal secretions breast milk across the placenta
normal Th cell count 600- 1200 cells/microliter of blood
what is a persons Th cell count with AIDS? Less than 200 cell/pL
what are some common infections or diseases a person with AIDS may encounter? Herpes simplex virus cytomegalovirus tuberculosis
the respiratory system works in conjunction with the cardiovascular system to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and the air. What are the other 4 functions of the respiratory system? speech and other vocalizations sense of smell pH balance (by eliminating CO2) affects blood pressure b/c synthesizes angiotensin II (vasoconstrictor that raises bp)
which organs make up the upper respiratory tract? nose pharynx larynx
the __________ is shaped by bone and hyaline cartilage nose
the right and left halves of the nasal cavity are called nasal fossae
what is the function of the superior, middle, and inferior nasal conchae? Cleans warms moistens the air
a muscular funnel that connects the nasal and oral cavities to the larynx and esophagus and is divided into 3 regions, the nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx. Pharynx
Which 2 regions allow air, food, and drink to pass? Oropharynx laryngopharynx
Cartilaginous chamber that contains the vocal cords and keeps food out of the airway. Larynx
what is the name of the structure that closes the airway and directs food to the esophagus Epiglottis
which cartilage composing the larynx is shield-shaped and stimulated for growth by testosterone Adams apple
produce sound when air passes between them vocal cords
superior___________ are known as false vocal cords because they only close the larynx during swallowing. Vestibular folds
Which structures make up the lower respiratory tract trachea bronchi lungs alveoli
wind-pipe is composed of 16-20 C- shaped rings of hyaline cartilage that helps prevent the airway form collapsing. trachea
which type of cells secret mucus goblet cells
conical shaped organs that rest on the diaphragm and participate in inhalation and exhalation lung
the two _________ of primary bronchi, supply each lung with air and divide into a series of smaller tubes. Main bronchi
Which bronchus is wider and more vertical and more susceptible to the lodging foreign objects right main bronchus
as the main bronchi branch though the lungs, they eventually branch into small tubes that lack cartilage called, _________, which end in alveolar sacs bronchioles
What type of cells are found in the alveoli? squamous cell great alveolar dust cell
Thin, broad cells that allow for rapid gas diffusion between the alveoli and blood stream squamous cell
repair the alveolar epithelium when squamous cells are damaged and secrete pulmonary surfactant, a mixture of phospholipids and proteins that coat the alveoli and prevent them from collapsing when we exhale. great (type II) alveolar cells
most numerous of all cells in the lungs and keep the alveoli free from debris by phagocytizing dust particles alveolar macrophages (dust cell)
each alveolus is surrounded by a basket of blood capillaries that is supplied with blood by which artery? Pulmonary artery
the barrier between the alveolar air and the blood is known at the __________ membrane. Respiratory
why must the alveoli be kept dry gases diffuse too slowly to sufficiently aerate the blood
The lungs are surrounded by a membrane called visceral pleura
The entire thoracic region is the surrounded by a membrane called the parietal pleura
the space between the two membranes is called ___________, which produces ________ pleural cavity pleural fluid
what are the 3 functions of these membranes and the pleural fluid? (parietal/pleural) reduce friction create pressure gradient that moves in & out of the lungs Compartmentalization, which helps prevent the spread of infection from one thoracic organ to others
consists of inhaling inspiration
consists of exhaling expiration
which muscle groups are primarily responsible for breathing (respiratory muscles) Diaphragm Internal & external intercostal muscles accessory muscles
normally breathing is an unconscious activity that is controlled by the ________ & _________. Medulla oblongata pons control
what region of the brain controls voluntary breathing? motor cortex of cerebrum
which nerve fibers innervate the diaphragm an intercostal muscles necessary for breathing? Phrenic & intercostal nerves
Responds to changes in pH of cerebrospinal fluid chemoreceptors
Found in the smooth muscle of bronchi and the bronchioles, and in the visceral pleura; respond to the O2 & CO2 content and the pH of blood stretch receptors
responds to smoke, dust, pollen, chemical fumes, cold air, and excess mucus irritant receptors
drives respirations and is governed by Boyle's Law, atmospheric pressure
States that at a constant temperature, the pressure of a given quantity of gas is inversely proportional to its volume Boyle's Law
How does Boyle's Law relate to inspiration lung volume to increase, which cases the intrapulmonary pressure to decrease and fall below 760 mmHg
Cool air is warmed by the nasal passages and warm air expands more than cool air. This further inflates the lungs Charles's Law
what causes expiration elastic recoil of the thoracic cage compresses the lungs and raises the intrapulmonary pressure above the atmospheric pressure
What factors influence airway resistance diameter of the bronchioles pulmonary compliance surface tension of the alveoli and distal bronchioles
volume of air inhaled and exhaled in one cycle during quiet breathing (500mL) tidal
air in excess of tidal volume that can be inhaled with maximum effort (3000mL) Inspiratory Reserve Volume
air in excess of tidal volume that can be exhaled with maximum effort (1200mL) Expiratory Reserve Volume
air remaining in the lungs after max expiration (1300mL) Residual Volume
total amount of air that can be inhaled and then exhaled with max effort (VC= ERV+TV+IRV); important measure of pulmonary health Vital Capacity
refers to the related quite breathing (around 12- 15 breaths per min) Eupnea
refers to a temporary cessation of breathing apnea
what is the name for the type of respiratory variation that results in deep, rapid breathing an is often seen in persons with diabetes mellitus? Kussmaul Respiration
What gases make up the air that we inhale 78.6% nitrogen 20.9% oxygen 0.04% carbon dioxide 0-4% water vapor
Total atmospheric pressure (760 mmHg at sea level) is the sum of the parietal pressure of each gas that makes up air Dalton's Law
During _________, oxygen and carbon dioxide must dissolve down their concertation gradients though water that covers the alveolar epithelium. Alveolar gas exchange
How does alveolar gas exchange relate to Henry's Law? The amount of gas that dissolves in the water is determined by it solubility in water and its partial pressure in air
what are the 4 factors that affect alveolar gas exchange? Pressure gradient of the gases solubility of the gases in water respiratory membrane thickness respiratory membrane surface area
Process of carrying gases from the alveoli to the systemic tissue an vice versa gas transport
the molecule that is specialized to transport oxygen, which binds to the heme portion of the hemoglobin molecule ( can also bind carbon dioxide to its globin chains) hemoglobin
How many molecules of oxygen can hemoglobin transport 4
Carbon dioxide is transported into and out of the RBC's in 3 forms during gas transport, which are Carbonic acid carbamino compounds dissolved gas
is the unloading of oxygen and loading of carbon dioxide at the systemic capillaries systemic gas exchange
what types of receptor regulates this by sending signals to the medulla oblongata and pons to adjust the respiratory rate? Chemoreceptors
Refers to blood pH lower than 7.35 Acidosis
refers to blood pH higher than 7.45 Alkalosis
Hypocapnia and hypercapnia are caused by changes in the concentration of what gas? PCO2
corrective homeostatic response to acidosis and occurs as carbon dioxide is exhaled faster than the body produces it, which reduces acid and raises the blood pH towards normal hyperventilation
corrective homeostatic response to alkalosis and occurs as carbon dioxide is allowed to accumulate in the body faster then we exhale it, which raises the acid concentration and lowers the pH to normal hypoventilation
deficiency of oxygen in a tissue and may be caused by many respiratory diseases. hypoxia
which type of hypoxia is caused by inadequate circulation of blood ischemic hypoxia
one sign of hypoxia is a blue coloration of the skin known as cyanosis
what are some effects of oxygen toxicity safe to breathe 100% oxygen at 1 atm for a few hrs generates free radicals and H2O2 destroys enzymes Damages nervous tissue leads to seizures, coma, death
Inflammation of the bronchial tubes in which cilia are immobilized and reduced in number and goblet cells enlarge and produce excess mucus Chronic bronchitis
what is the consequence of chronic bronchitis cilia immobilized and reduced in numbers goblet cell enlarge and produce excess mucus develop chronic cough to bring up extra mucus with less cilia to move it
the alveolar walls break down an the lung has larger, but fewer alveoli so there is less respiratory membrane for gas exchange. As a result, lungs become more fibrotic and less elastic, the air passages collapse, and the thoracic muscles weaken emphysema
which type of lung cancer is the least common, but most dangerous because it metastasizes quickly? small-cell(oat cell) carcinoma
What is the prognosis for someone diagnosed with lung cancer? Prognosis poor after diagnosis only 7% of patients survive 5 years
The urinary system consist of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
what are the functions of the kidneys eliminates wastes blood volume and pressure osmolarity renin erythropoietin regulate acid base balance
what is the name of the less-harmful product that ammonia is converted into the the liver urea
the product of nucleic acid catablism uric acid
the product of creatine phosphate catabolism creatinine
external coat of fibrous connective tissue Renal fascia
cushions the kidneys and holds it in place perirenal fat capsule
innermost covering that encloses the kidney and protects it from trauma an infecton fibrous (renal) capsule
The kidney is divided into the __________, which is the outer region that is packed with glomeruli, Renal Cortex
The inner portion that is composed of capillary networks around long loops of renal tubules Renal medulla
units inside the kidneys responsible for forming urine, and come in 2 varieties, Cortical nephrons (80-85%) Juxtamedullary nephrons (15-20%)
The average person has about how many nephrons per kidney? About 1.2 Million
The nephrons are supplied by blood from ______ arterioles Afferent
and the blood exits the nephron by way of the ______ arterioles efferent
portion of nephron that filters that blood plasma Renal corpuscle
Long coiled tube that converts the filtrate into urine Renal tubule
Carries glomeruli filtrate away from the glomerular capsule Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
pumps water and salts out of the tubule, leaving urine more concentrated Nephron loop ( loop of Henle)
Carries "almost-formed" urine to the collecting duct Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
Receives fluid from the DCT's of several nephrons Collecting ducts
The kidneys convert blood plasma into urine in three stages: Glomerular filtration tubular reabsorption water conservation
What 3 barriers constitutes the filtration membrane Fenestrated endothelium of glomerular capillaries basement membrane filtration slits
what types of substances are allowed to exit the blood an enter the glomerular capsule? water glucose electrolytes amino acids urea other wastes
what can happen if the filtration membrane is damaged by trauma or infection proteinuria hematuria
On average how much glomerular filtrate is produced each day? How much of this is exerted each day as urine? Around 180 liters/day 1-2 liters of urine
what happens if the GFR is too fast could lose to much to fast and become dehydrated
What happens if the GFR is too slow not getting toxins out and could have fluid retention
The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is controlled by three homeostatic mechanisms, which include... renal autoregulation sympathetic control hormonal control
based on the tendency of smooth muscle to contract when stretched myogenic mechanism
Employs a structure called the juxtaglomerular apparatus Tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism
The ability of the nephrons to adjust their own blood flow an GFR by two mechanisms Renal autoregulation
during __________ of the GFR, sympathetic nerve fibers innervate renal blood vessels to control the vasomotion of the afferent arterioles Sympathetic control
during ________ of GFR, a drop in systemic BP causes the kidneys to secrete renin, which catalyzes the formation of angiotensin II, Hormonal Control
How does angiotensin II help restore fluid volume and blood pressure? acts as vasoconstrictor stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone stimulates posterior pituitary to secrete ADH stimulates sense of thist
During tubular reabsorption, many of the glomerular filtrate components move out of the tubule cells and return to the blood via what structures? Peritubular capillaries
which part of the renal tubule is responsible for most reabsorption PCT
What is the importance of tubular secretion Important for waste removal and clears drugs and contaminates from the blood important for maintaining acid base balance
after the tubule fluid makes its way though the PCT and nephron loop, it enters the _________, where it undergoes further reabsorption of salt and water from the tubular fluid distal convoluted
During the third stage of urine formation, water is conserved as the tubule fluid exits the DCT and enters the ________. Collecting duct
how does urine become more concentrated as urine inside the collecting duct passes through the increasingly salt medulla, water leaves by osmosis, concentrating urine
Normally, the color of urine ranges from clear to deep amber. what may account for cloudiness or blood in urine? Hematuria
What causes the odor in urine bacteria degrade urea to ammonia, some foods impart aroma, and some diseases cause fruity or rotten odors
What types of substances found in the urine are abnormal and may indicate underlying diseases such as diabetes mellitus glucose, free hemoglobin, albumin, ketones, bile pigments
what are diuretics any chemical that increases urine volume
why are they commonly used to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure? Reducing the body's fluid and blood pressure
The _______ are long muscular tubes that transport urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. Ureters
Why is it a disadvantage that the lumen of the ureter is very narrow? easily obstructed kidney stones
after passing through the ureters, urine enters the _________, where is is stored until it is time to urinate. Urinary bladder
during urination, urine passes through the ___________ Urethra
why are women more susceptible to urinary tract infections than men? Because the urethra is shorter in women
What cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity? T lymphocytes
A lung disease marked by abnormally few but large alveoli is emphysema
Relaxed, quite breathing is known as eupnea
which renal structure is responsible for producing concentrated urine by conserving water? collecting duct
What are the functions of pleurae and pleural fluid reduce friction create pressure gradient to move air into and out of lungs compartmentalization to limit spread of infection
Before B cells secrete antibodies they differentiate into Plasma cells
Blood plasma is filtered in renal corpuscle
The amount of air inhaled an exhaled in one cycle during quiet breathing is known as: tidal volume
___________ are the largest of the lymphatic vessels and they empty into the ____________. Collecting ducts subclavian veins
T/F: Is is normal to find glucose in the urine False
The innermost connective tissue layer protecting the kidneys and assisting in staving off infection is known as the fibrous capsule
Which alveolar cells secrete pulmonary surfactant? Type II great Alveolar cells
each alveolus is surrounded by a basket of blood capillaries supplied by the pulmonary artery
Which gas is most responsible for changes in blood pH carbon dioxide
molecules that trigger an immune response are known as what antigens
most common allergies are the result of? Type I (acute) hypersensitivity
T/F: The ureter is a muscular tube that extends from the kidneys to the urinary bladder True
The class of antibodies that are the first to appear during a secondary immune response and may cross the placenta IgG
what muscle groups are responsible for quiet respiration? diaphragm and intercostals
Which type of lymphocytes directly carry out an attack on enemy cells? Cytotoxic T cells (Tc) Natural Killer Cells (NK)
Water conservation occurs in the _____________, and occurs as urine passes through the salty medulla and water exits by the process of ___________. Collecting duct Osmosis
According to _____________, at a given temperature, the pressure of a given quantity of gas is inversely proportional to its volume Boyle's Law
A person who is HIV positive and has a helper T (Th) cells count lower than __________ has AIDS 200 cells/uL
Hypoventilation is a homeostatic mechanism to correct what condition alkalosis
which nerve fibers innervate the diaphragm and intercostal muscle necessary for breathing intercostal nerves phrenic nerves
T/F: The lymphatic system is a population of cells that inhabit out organs and defend the body from agents of diseases False
Most numerous lymphatic organs that cleanse the lymph and acts as the site for T and B cell activation Lymph nodes
What structures make up the lower respiratory tract trachea bronchi lungs alveoli
Created by: SamMcG11
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