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A&P2 Ch19/20 Exam 3

Ch. 19 & 20 Exam 3

The circulatory system consists of? Heart, blood vessels, and blood
The cardiovascular system consists of? Heart and blood vessels
What are the 2 major divisions of the cardiovascular system Pulmonary and systemic circuit
Circuit is supplied by the right side of the hear and carries blood to the lungs for gas exchange and back to the heart pulmonary circuit
Circuit is supplied by the left side of the heart and carries oxygenated blood to all the tissues of the body and returns it to the heart systemic circuit
the heart is located in the medial cavity of the thorax known as mediastinum
The heart is enclosed by a double-walled sac called the _________ that secretes __________ between the two membreanes pericardium Pericardial fluid
What is the function of the pericardium and pericardial fluid? Allows heart to beat without friction, provides room to expand, yet resists excessive expansion, isolates heart from other thoracic organs
What are the 3 layers of the heart Epicardium Myocardium Endocardium
Outermost layer of the heart (aka visceral pericardium) Epicardium
Middle layer of the heart; composed of cardiac muscle that forms the framework or the heart and performs the work of the heart Myocardium
innermost layer of the heart that lines the heart chambers Endocardium
What is the function of the atria Receive blood returning to heart
What is the function of the ventricles pump blood into arteries
what is the name for the valve that controls blood flow between the right atrium and right ventricle tricuspid valve
what is the name of the valve that controls blood flow between the left atrium and left ventricle. mitral or bicuspid valve
The _________ valve is located in the opening between the right ventricle and pulmonary truck Pulmonary Semilunar
The _________ valve is located in the opening between the left ventricle and the aorta. Aortic Semilunar
Refers to any failure of a heart valve to prevent the backward flow of blood and may result in abnormal heart sound Valvular Insufficiency
Abnormal heart sounds Heart mummur
What are some things that may cause valvular insuffieciency Valvular Stenosis heart overworks and may become enlarged heart murmur mitral valve prolapse
What causes the first heart sound, known as S1 Closure of AV valves
What causes the second hear sound, known as S2 Closure of semilunar valves
What is the name of the artery that supplies both ventricles and the interventricular septum with blood? Left Coronary Artery (LCA)
The _______ is he coronary artery that supplies the right atrium and sinoatrial node( pacemaker) with blood. right Coronary artery (RCA)
Chest pain from partial obstruction of coronary blood flow that occurs as the myocardium shifts to anaerobic fermentation and produces lactic acid. Angina Pectoris
Refers to the sudden death of a patch of myocardium due to long-term obstruction of coronary circulation and is responsible for about 27% of all deaths in the U.S. Myocardial Infarction
Blood returns to the right atrium from the heart by emptying into the great vein, middle cardiac vein and left marginal vein, all of which empty into a large vein called... Coronary Sinus
Cardiac muscle is composed of cells called cardiocytes
Cardiocytes contain ________ that connect the cells intercalated discs
Electrical Junction called _________ that allow ions to flow between cells to stimulate neighboring cells. (This allows the heart to contact in unison) Gap Junctions
How is damaged cardiac muscle repaired? Fibrosis
Patch of modified Cardiocytes that initiates each heartbeat and determines heart rate (known as the pacemaker) Sinoatrial Node (SA Node)
located at the lower end of the interatrial septum near the right AV valve that acts an electrical gateway to the ventricles. Atrioventricular Node (AV Node)
Pathway by which signals leave the AV node; forks into right and left bundle branches that pass through interventricular septum toward the apex (aka bundle of His) Atrioventricular Bundle (AV Bundle)
Nerve-like processes that spread throughout ventricular myocardium (aka purkinje fibers) Subendocardial Conduction Network
What ions trigger depolarization in the pacemaker cell? Na+
What ion triggers repolarization of the pacemaker cell? Ca2+ channels close, K+ channels open
Refers to atrial or ventricular contraction Systole
Refers to atrial or ventricular relaxation Diastole
Refers to the normal heartbeat triggered by the SA node, which is normally 60-100 bpm Sinus Rhythm
Term used to describe the firing of the heart that occurs when the another part of the heart fires before the SA Node Ectopic focus
Is SA node is damaged, heart rate is set by the AV Node and beats at 40-50 bpm Nodal Rhythm
If both SA node and AV nodes are damaged, heart rate is set as 20-40 bpm, which requires use of an _________________ b/c not enough oxygen is pumped to the brain. intrinsic ventricular rhythm
refers to any abnormal cardiac rhythm that results from a failure of the cardiac conduction system to transmit signals arrhytmia
what happens if the left ventricle fails and the right ventricle is pumping more blood? Blood backs up into the lungs causing pulmonary edema
What happens if the right ventricle fails and the left ventricle is pumping more blood? Blood backs up in the vena cava causing systemic or generalized edema
A composite of all action potentials of nodal & myocardial cells detected, amplified & recorded by electrodes on the arm legs & chest & can be used to detect abnormalities in the conduction pathways, myocardial infarction, enlargement of the heart, etc. Electrocardiogram
P Wave: SA Node fires, atria depolarize
PQ Segment Atrial Systole
QRS complex Ventricular Depolarization
ST Segment Ventricular systole
T wave Ventricular repolarization & diastole (relaxation)
What is the normal resting heart rate for young, healthy adults? 64-80 bpm
is resting adult heart rate of above 100 bpm that may be caused by stress, drugs, anxiety, heart disease, or damage to myocardium tachycardia
a resting adult heart rate of less than 60 bpm bradycardia
Factors that can raise heart rate and include substances such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, thyroid hormone, or hypocalcemia. Positive Chronotropic Agents
Factors that lower heart rate and include acetylcholine, hypercalcemia, and hyper and hypokalemia (high or low potassium levels) Negative Chronotropic Agents
Refers to the amount of blood ejected by the ventricle in 1 minute. Cardiac Output
How is cardiac output calculated? Heart rate x stroke volume = cardiac output
Refers to the amount of blood ejected from the ventricle in 1 contraction (about 70mL) Stroke volume
How do we keep cardiac output constant as we age? To keep cardiac output constant as we increase in age, the heart rate increases as the stroke volume decreases
refers to a disease that causes the constriction of the coronary arteries Coronary Artery Disease
the accumulation of lipid deposits that degrade the arterial wall and obstruct its lumen(opening) Atherosclerosis
what are some risk factors for atherosclerosis excess of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the blood & defective LDL receptors in the arterial walls Heredity Aging Smoking Being male Obesity Lack of exercise Anxious personality Stress Aggression Diet
the cardiac conduction system includes all of the following except: SA Node Bundle branches Subendocardial conducting network Tendinous cords AV Node Tendinous cords
A heart rate of 45 bpm and an absence of P waves suggest Damage to the SA Node
the atria contract during The PQ sement
Deoxygenated blood returns to the heart via Vena Cavae
T/F: The relaxation of the heart chamber is called systole False
T/F: Connection between neighboring cardiomyocytes are called intercalated discs. True
T/F: Ventricular fibrillation is an example of cardiac arrhythmia True
The ______ nerves innervate the heart and tend to reduce the heart rate Vagus
T/F: If all the nerves to the heart were severed, the heart would instantly stop beating. False
All of the following are positive chronotropic agents except; Caffeine Thyroid hormone Acetylcholine Hypocalcemia Norepinephrine Acetylcholine
Carry blood away from the heart Arteries
Carry blood back to the heart Veins
Connect smallest arteries to veins Capillaries
The walls of the arteries and veins are composed of 3 layers called Tunics
Innermost layer, composed of simple squamous epithelium; acts as selectively permeable barrier and secretes chemicals that stimulates constriction or dilation of vessel Tunica Interna
Middle layer, responsible for vasomotion b/c of presence of smooth muscle; layer also consists of collagen, and elastic tissue Tunica Media
outermost layer, consists of loose connective tissue Tunica Externa
More muscular than veins, retain their round shapes when empty, and contain sense organs that monitor blood pressure and chemistry. Arteries
Pressure sensors that monitor blood pressure Baroreceptors
Monitor changes in pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentration Chemoreceptors
A weak point in an artery or the heart wall that may rupture and cause hemorrhaging is called Aneurysm
The 3 type of capillaries are Continuous capillaries Fenestrated capillaries sinusoids (discontinuous capillaries)
Occur in most tissues and allow for the passage of solutes like glucose; cells in close contact with one another but have very small intercellular clefts; surrounded by cells called pericytes Continuous capillaries
Found in organs that require rapid absorption or filtration Fenestrated capillaries
Found in the liver, bone marrow and spleen and allow proteins, clotting factors, and blood cells to enter the circulation Sinusoids ( discontinuous capillaries)
Regulate blood flow through a capillary bed and thus control the amount of blood and nutrients that are delivered to tissues and organs of the body Precapillary sphincters
What happens when blood pools in the lower legs in people who stand for long periods of time? What causes this? Cusps of the valves pull apart in enlarged superficial vessels. Blood back flows and further distends the vessels, their walls grow weak and develop into varicose veins
Explain the simplest and most common route of blood flow Heart —-> Arteries —-> Arterioles —> Capillaries —-> Venules —-> veins
In a _____, blood flows through 2 consecutive capillary networks before returning to the heart Portal system
In an ______, blood flow bypasses the capillaries and flows directly into a vein or artery Arteriovenous anastomosis (Shunt)
____is the force of blood as it is exerted against a vessel wall. Blood pressure
_____ pressure is peak arterial Bp taken during ventricular contraction (systole) Systolic pressure
_____ pressure in the minimum arterial Bp taken during ventricular relaxation (diastole) between heart beats. Diastolic Pressure
What is normal blood pressure for young adults? 120/75 mmHg
A chronic resting blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg or above Hypertension
A chronic low resting blood pressure <90/60 mmHg May be caused by blood loss, dehydration, or anemia Hypotension
Blood pressure is regulated by _________, which refers to the dial action and contraction of blood vessels (called vasodilation or vasoconstriction) Vasomotion
What happens to bp when vasodilation occurs? Bp drops
What happens to bp when vasoconstriction occurs? bp rises
Why does BP rise with age? Arteries less distensible and absorb less systolic force (arteriosclerosis) and atherosclerosis (plaque deposition on artery wall)
Name 3 ways that vasomotion can be controlled Local control neural control Hormonal control
The ability of a tissue to regulate its own blood supply by undergoing vasodilation to increase blood flow and then undergoing vasoconstriction when wastes are removed Autoregulation
Substance released by platelets or endothelial cells that can stimulate vasomotion Vasoactive Chemicals
if blood supply cut off, but then restored, the blood supply increases above normal Reactive hyperemia
Growth of new blood vessels by blood-deprived organs or tissues Angiogenesis
Neural control of blood vessels is controlled by baroreceptors and chemoreceptors that sense changes in blood pressure and transmit that information to the _______, where blood vessels constrict or dilate in response Vasomotor
A vasoconstrictor that raises BP Angiotensin II
Increases blood volume and raises BP by promoting salt and water retention Aldosterone
Raises BP by promoting water retention ADH
Lowers BP by reducing water voulme natriuretic peptides
_________ & ________: in most blood vessels, these substances raise BP b/c act as vasoconstrictors; in skeletal and cardiac muscles blood vessels, they lower BP b/c act as vasodilators Epinephrine Norepinephrine
One very important function of the blood capillaries is to transport fluid and nutrients between the blood and tissues. What four mechanisms are involved in capillary exchange? Diffusion, transcytosis, filtration, and reabsorption
How much fluid do the capillaries reabsorb from the fissures they filter? About 85% of the fluid they filter the other 15% is absorbed by the lymphatic system
where does capillary filtration occur? Arterial end
What is the driving force behind capillary filtration? The blood hydrostatic pressure
Where does capillary reabsorption occurs? Venous end
What is the driving force behind capillary? The colloid osmotic pressure
Refers to the accumulation of excess fluid in a tissue that occurs when fluid filters into a tissue faster than it is reabsorbed. Edema
Is the flow of blood back to the heart and is driven by pressure gradients, gravity skeletal muscle pumps in the limbs, the thoracic pump that is generated during inhalation, and cardiac suction that occurs as the heart expands. Venous return
Which is inadequate pumping of the heart Cardiogenic
Which cardiac output is low b/c there is too little blood returning to the heart Low venous return
Is the most common form of shock and occurs due to a loss of blood volume because of trauma, burns, or dehydration. Hypovolemic shock
Shock occurs because bacteria toxins trigger vasodilation Septic
Shock occurs because of a severe immune reaction to antigen in which histamine is released and vasodilation occurs Anaphylactic
In ______ shock, the body is corrected spontaneously by the body’s own homeostatic mechanisms Compensated
________ shock is life-threatening and incapable of self-correcting. Decompensated
The growth of new blood vessels by blood deprived organs or tissue Angiogenesis
Which of the following is NOT a factor that determines blood pressure? Cardiac output Precapillary sphincters Blood volume Resistance to flow All of the above Precapillary sphincters
______ shock occurs when bacterial toxins trigger vasodilation and increases capillary permeability. Septic
Obstruction of the ______ will cause a more severe myocardial infarction (MI) than the obstruction of any of the others. Left Coronary Artery (LCA)
Hypertension is commonly considered to be a chronic resting blood pressure higher than _____ 140/90
If the sinoatrial (SA) is damaged, the heart will likely beat at ______ 40 to 50 bpm
The outermost layer of and artery composed of loose connective tissue is called the _______ Tunica Externa
Type of capillary that allows large substances, like proteins and blood cells to exit and enter the circulation Sinusoid capillary
What is diastole Refers to atrial or ventricular relaxation
What is valvular insufficiency Failure of the heart valves to prevent the back flow of blood into the heart
What causes depolarization of the myocardial cells in the SA node Influx of Na+ and Ca2+
Reactive hyperemia is a result of ______ to increase perfusion into a tissue Local control
Oxygenated blood leaves the heart via the: Aorta
T/F: compensated shock is normally corrected by the body’s own homeostatic mechanisms True
Name the four mechanisms involved in capillary exchange Diffusion Transcytosis Filtration Reabsorption
what is systole Refers to atrial or ventricular contraction
________ are blood vessels under high pressure, have a thick layer of smooth muscle and elastin, and retain their shape when empty Arteries
A weak point in the wall of an artery is called: An aneurysm
The circulatory system includes all of the following EXCEPT: Heart Blood Blood vessels Lungs All above are components Lungs
Why does blood pressure rise with age Arteries become less elastic, so cannot withstand pressure created as blood ejects aorta (arteriosclerosis) and arteries often become clogged with lipid plaques (atherosclerosis)
The tricuspid valve regulates the opening between The right atrium and the right ventricle
_______ is the innermost layer of the heart wall Endocardium
Opening and closing of the heart valves is caused by Pressure gradients
what causes angina pectoris Temporary heart blockage that causes the accumulation of lactic acid as heart switches to anaerobic fermentation
What effect does epinephrine have on blood vessels found in skeletal and cardiac muscle Acts as vasodilator and lowers bp
Created by: SamMcG11
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