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Human Phys

Integumentary and Skeletal System

egg-shaped articular surface of one bone fits into an oval concavity in another, oval shaped surfaces condyloid joints
what joint synovial joint is found in the knuckle joints condyloid joints
what joint allows movement side to side and back and forth but cannot be rotated around the long axis, bi-axial, movement around 2 axes condyloid joints
articular surface has convex and concave areas saddle joints
what joint is found in the metacarpal joint in the thumb (demonstrated when twiddling thumbs) saddle joints
biaxial joint allows same movement as condyloid, side to side and back and forth saddle joints
the spherical head of one bone fits into a round socket in another ball-and-socket joints
what joint found is in the shoulder and hip ball-and-socket joints
multi axial joints that allow movement in all axes including rotation and are the most freely movable synovial joints ball-and-socket joints
the articular surfaces are essentially flat plane joints
found in the inter carpal joints in the wrist plane joints
only short slipping or gliding movements allowed. non axial movements plane joints
a cylindrical end of one bone fits into a trough-shaped surface on another bone hinge joints
found in the elbow, ankle, and in the phalanges of the fingers hinge joints
angular movement uni-axial only allow movement around one axis hinge joints
the rounded end of a bone firs into a sleeve or ring of another bone pivot joint
found in the radioulnar joint and joint between atlas and dens axis pivot joint
the rotating bone can only turn around its long axis are uniaxial joints pivot joints
what is contained in yellow marrow adipose tissue
secure the periosteum to underlying bone sharpeys fibers
what are sharpeys fibers composed of hundreds of connective tissue fibers
protects and helps heal your bones periosteum
what is the periosteum composed of fibrous connective tissue membrane
what are mature bone cells called osteocytes
another name for osteon haversian system
where are osteons present compact bone
skull (what type) cranium (flat)
jaw (what type) mandible (irregular)
collar bone (what type) clavicle (long)
shoulder blade (what type) scapula (flat)
chest bone (what type) sternum (flat)
upper arm bone (what type) humerus (long)
arm bone lines up with thumb (what type) radius (long)
arm bone lines up with pinky (what type) ulna (long)
ribs (what type) ribs (flat)
back bone (what type) vertebrae (irregular)
wrist bones (what type) carpals (short)
hand bones (what type) metacarpals (long)
fingers (what type) phalanges (long)
pelvis (what type) pelvic bone (irregular)
thigh bone(what type) femur (long)
knee cap (what type) patella (sesmaid)
thick leg bone (what type) tibia (long)
skinny leg bone (what type) fibula (long)
ankle bones (what type) tarsals (short)
foot bones (what type) metatarsals (long)
toes (what type) phalanges (long)
upper pelvic (what type) illium (flat)
tailbone (what type) sacrum/coxus (irrefular bone
lower pelvic (what type) ishium (irregular)
what is the integumentary system composed of the skin and derivatives
keep water and important molecules in body, protects against chemical and mechanical damage function of the integumentary system m
what does the integumentary system do (2 things) temp regulation and synthesize vitamin D
what does the integumentary system protect against uv rays and bacteria
what are the 3 layers of skin (from closest to the surface to deepest) epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis
made of stratified squamous epithelium and can become hard or keratinized epidermis
made dense connective tissue dermis
what does the dermis level contain sweat and oil glands, blood vessels, hair folicles, pressure receptors
made of adipose tissue hypodermis
what does the hypodermis do anchors skin to underlying organs, shock absorption, and insulation
4 derivatives sebacious glands, hair, nails, and sweat glands
what are sebacious glands oil glands
what do sebacious glands do (4 things) secrete sebum and keep skin and hair soft and kill bacteria
what do sweat glands do (2 things) temp regulation and inhibit bacteria growth
highly keratinized material nails
what does hair do (3 things) shield eyes, filter particles and guard head against bumps
what is hair produced by hair follicles
part enclosed in the follicle root
par projecting from the surface shaft
cause hair to stand up for insulation arrector pili
pigment that ranges from yellow to born to black produced by specialized cells called melanocytes melanin
amount and type of melanin present influences what? skin color
exposure to sun stimulates what? melanocytes
how many bones do adults have 206
approximately how many bones do newborns have and why about 300 and because bones fuse together as you get older allowing for growth
5 function of the skeletal system (spmsb) support, protection, movement, storage, and blood cell formation
what does the integumentary system support organs
what does the integumentary system protect soft organs
what does the integumentary system move act as levers so muscles can move
what does the integumentary system store fat and minerals (calcium and phosphorus)
what does the integumentary system have to do blood cell formation blood cells are formed in the marrow of some bones
what are the four types of bones long, short, flat, irregular
a broken bone is called what a fracture
transverse fracture horizonal, bending force
oblique fracture diagonal sloped up or down, trapped while other twists over
spiral fracture spiral around bone, twisting force
comminuted fracture breaks into multiple pieces, crushing force
avulsion fracture piece breaks off, tendon pulls away and bone goes with
impacted fracture occurs in middle of bone where bone buckles itself
fissure fracture incomplete fracture, doesnt pass thorugh entire bone
greenstick fracture bone bends rather than break, like a tree branch
what fracture is most common in children greenstick, bones are still cartilaginous
contains cranium, vertebral column, and bony thorax axial
bones of limbs, pectoral, and pelvic girdles appendicular
types of bone tissue compact and spongy
dense appears smooth and homogenous compact
small, needle-like pieces of bone with lots of open space spongy
located in the diaphysis yellow marrow
what is the diaphysis bone shaft
forms red blood cells found in the cavities of spongy bone red marrow
what is the epiphysis the end part of a long bone
complex consisting of central canal and matrix rings osteon
matrix rings lamellae
where are ostrocytes found in cavities of osteons
another name for joints articulations
what do joints do hold bones together and allow mobility
what are the two classification of joints funtional and structural
three types of functional joints synarthroses, amphiarthroses, diarthroses
immovable joints synarthroses
slighty moveable amphiarthroses
freely moveable joints diarthroses
what are the three types of structural joints fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial
connected by fibrous tissue fibrous joints
connected by cartilage cartilaginous joints
bone ends separated by joint cavity containing fluid synovial joints
fibrous generally immovable
cartilaginous slightly movable
synovial freely movable
break stays within the skin simple fracture
break punctures through the skin surface compound fracture
osteoporosis means porous bone, weakens bones and makes more likely for break
what causes osteoporosis a lack of calcium your whole life and eating disorders
how is osteoporosis diagnosed bone density can be measured through special machines a low density means you are likely to have osteoporosis
what treatments are there for osteoporosis depends on severity, more severe will prescribe medication, less severe better dieting
Created by: fam514
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