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Science unit 1

Atom Smallest unit of matter (can not be broken by chemical means)
element substances that have similar properties and made up of atoms
Polarity having a positive side and a negative side
Convalent bond sharing electrons between 2 elements
ionic bond transfer electrons and bond forms between positive and negative change
hydrogen bond a bond between hydrogen of a molecule and another negative element on a different molecule
ion element with a charge
cohesion attraction of same particles
adhesion attraction of different particles
4 main types of macromolecules 1. carbohydrates 2. lipids 3. proteins 4. nucleic acids
independent variable the variable is varied during the experiment (what will be tested)
Homeostatis stable internal environment
Metabolism the chemical reactions in the body's cells that change food into energy
Macromolecule large molecule (ex. carbohydrate, lipid, proteins, nucleic acids)
Organelle Structure that carries out the specific activities of the cell
cell highly organized structure enclosed in a membrane
Biosphere thin volume of earth and air above the supports life
Ecosystem all living and nonliving things
Community all living things in an area
Population group of the same species living in the same place at the same time
Organism one living thing
Biotic living
Abiotic nonliving
Bacteriophage a type of virus that infects bacteria
Lytic cycle the reproduction of viruses using a host cell
7 characteristics of life 1. cellular composition 2. homeostasis 3. responsiveness 4. reproduction 5. heredity 6. energy/ metabolism 7. growth
what are the levels of organization for life atoms, molecules, macromolecule, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism
dependent variable variable is measured based on the independent variable
what part of an element is involved in chemical reactions electrons
3 types of bonds 1. convalent 2. ionic 3. hydrogen
convalent sharing electrons between 2 elements
ionic transfer electrons and ions form between positive and negative change
hydrogen bond between hydrogen of 1 molecule and another negative element on a different molecule
what are the 5 elements that make up living things hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous
4 properties of water 1. water molecules stick to each other and other things 2. water molecules are polar 3. water absorbs and releases heat without a large change in temperature 4. ice floats on water
carbohydrate function immediate energy and structure
lipid function stored energy, structure, and protection and insulation
protein function structure, chemical reactions, movement, transport oxygen, immunity
nucleic acid function genetic information- stores and transports
4 macromolecules protein, carbohydrate, lipid, nucleic acid
nucleic acid elements C, H, O, N, P
Carbohydrate elements C, H, O with a ration of 1:2:1
protein elements C, H, O, N
lipid elements C, H, O, with C-H chains
what is an enzyme group of catalysts in living things
active site place on the enzyme where substrate binds
activation energy energy needed to start a chemical reaction
substrate molecule that binds to a specific enzyme
how does an enzyme function a. substrate binds to an enzymes active site like a key in a lock (LOCK AND KEY MECHANISM) B. Enzyme holds the substrate in place by changing its shape slightly ( INDUCED FIT MODEL C. unchanged enzyme releases the product when the reaction is over and b
4 characteristics of enzymes 1. speed up reactions 2. not used up 3. same enzyme does building and breakdown 4. highly selective to what substrate it binds to
what factors affect the function of enzymes 1. increased temperature 2. change in pH= enzyme denatures 3. increase enzyme or substrate concentration 4. addition of inhibitors
how does activation energy change between when there is an enzyme and without and enzyme activation energy reduces when there is an enzyme present
Created by: trenicetaylor
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