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Nervous System

This study stack is about the nervous system and endocrine system.

How are nerve signals transmitted? An impulse flows through a neuron (dendrite → cell body → axon) and then a signal is sent to another neuron through a gap.
What is a nerve cell synapse? The gap between neurons where signals are sent from one to the other.
How are messages transmitted across a synapse? An impulse triggers the release of neurotransmitters from the axon into the synapse. They cross the synapse and bind to receptors which are located on the dendrites. The receptors receive and process the message.
What is the function of a sensory neuron? Sends messages from receptors to the central nervous system and allows us to feel sensation.
What is the function of a interneuron? Sends messages within the central nervous system.
What is the function of a motor neuron? Sends messages from the central nervous system to an effector.
How do messages get from one nerve cell to another? By a nerve cell synapse.
What is a reflex arc? A shorter pathway that bypasses the brain, the message reaches the spinal cord and then heads straight back out down the motor neuron in order to produce a response. It is a built in behaviour.
Why do we have reflex arcs? To protect the body from damage.
What is the Central Nervous System? It is made up of the brain and spinal cord. It receives information from the sense organs and organizes the body's response.
What is the Peripheral Nervous System? It is made up of all the nerves extending from the brain and spinal cord. It relays messages between the sense organs, central nervous system, muscles and glands.
What are Receptor Cells? What is their function? They are cells that detect stimuli of a specific type.
What part of the body contains smell receptors? Olfactory Epithelium
Smells are good at triggering memories what is the best explanation for this? Signals from the olfactory receptor cells travel directly to parts of the brain where memory is stored.
What are Thermoreceptors? A cell that detects temperature changes.
What are Photoreceptors? A cell that detects light.
What are Chemoreceptors? A cell that detects chemicals such as tastes and smells.
What are Mechanoreceptors? A cell that detects touch, pressure, sound and motion.
Taste depends on what senses? Smell
What are Hormones? Chemical messengers that control a particular body function.
How are Hormone signals different to Nerve signals? They are slower than Nerve signals but have longer lasting effects.
How do Hormones travel from cells that produce them to target cells? By the bloodstream.
What does Insulin do? Helps to lower blood glucose.
Where is Insulin produced? It is released by the pancreas when there is too much glucose in the blood and is absorbed by the liver and muscles.
What is the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is genetic and is when a person's body can't produce enough insulin to control their blood glucose levels. Type 2 diabetes is caused by a person's diet and is when their receptor cells reduce insulin.
What do Beta Cells in the Islets of Langerhans do? Make insulin.
Why does the immune system kill off Beta Cells in some people to cause Type 1 Diabetes? The body does not recognize its own insulin-producing beta cells, so the immune system attacks and destroys them as if they were invaders.
What is quicker, Nerve signals or Hormones? Nerve signals.
Coordinator of the Nervous System is the... Brain
Created by: bridie.zampese
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