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CAOT Chapter 10

Musculoskeletal system

TermDefinition
articulation place of union between two or more bones, aka joint
hematopoesis production and development of blood cells, normally in the bone marrow
ligaments connective tissue that surrounds the joint capsule to bind bones to other bones
tendons connective tissue that binds muscle to bone on either side of a joint
cardiac muscle found only in the heart wall where it forms the myocardium
involuntary muscles smooth muscles; visceral muscles
voluntary muscles skeletal muscles; striated muscles
fibers contractile cells composing a muscle
adduction moves closer to the midline
abduction moves away from the midline
flexion decreases the angle of a joint
extension increases the angle of a joint
rotation moves a bone around its own axis
pronation turns the palm downward
supination turns the palm upward
inversion moves the sole of the foot inward
eversion moves the sole of the foot outward
dorsiflexion elevates the foot
plantar flexion lowers the foot (points the toes)
leiomy/o smooth (visceral) muscle
muscul/o muscle
my/o muscle
rhabd/o rod-shaped (striated)
rhabdomy/o rod-shaped (striated) muscle
brachi/o arm
carp/o carpus (wrist bone)
cephal/o head
cervic/o neck; cervix uteri (neck of the uterus)
clavicul/o clavicle (collar bone)
cost/o ribs
crani/o cranium (skull)
dactyl/o fingers; toes
humer/o humerus (upper arm bone)
metacarp/o metacarpus (hand bones)
phalang/o phalanges (bones of the fingers and toes)
radi/o radiation, x-ray; radius (lower arm bone on the thumb side)
spondyl/o vertebrae (backbone)
vertebr/o vertebrae (backbone)
stern/o sternum (breastbone)
thorac/o chest
calcane/o calcaneum (heel bone)
femor/o femur (thigh bone)
fibul/o fibula )smaller bone of the lower leg)
ili/o ilium (lateral, flaring portion of the hip bone)
ischi/o ischium (lower portion of the hip bone)
lumb/o loins (lower back)
metatars/o metatarsus (foot bones)
patell/o patella (kneecap)
pelv/i pelvis
pelv/o pelvis
pod/o foot
pub/o pubis (anterior part of the pelvic bone)
tibi/o tibia (larger bone of the lower leg)
ankyl/o stiffness; bent, crooked
anrthr/o joint
chondr/o cartilage
fasci/o band, fascia (fibrous membrane supporting and separating muscles)
fibr/o fiber, fibrous tissue
kyph/o humpback
lamin/o lamina (part of the vertebral arch)
lord/o curve, swayback
myel/o bone marrow; spinal cord
orth/o straight
oste/o bone
ped/o foot; child
ped/i foot; child
scoli/o crooked, bent
synov/o synovial membrane, synovial fluid
ten/o tendon
tend/o tendon
tendin/o tendon
-asthenia weakness, debility
-clasia to break; surgical fracture
-clast to break; surgical fracture
-desis binding, fixation (of a bone or joint)
-malacia softening
-porosis porous
-sarcoma malignant tumor of connective tissue
a- without, not
dys- bad; painful; difficult
syn- union, together, jointed
bunion (hallux valgus) deformity in which the great toe is angled laterally toward the other toes
carpal tunnel syndrome painful condition resulting from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel (wrist canal through which the flexor tendons and the median nerve pass)
claudication lameness, limping
contracture fibrosis of connective tissue in the skin, fascia, muscle, or joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the tissue or joint
crepitation dry, grating sound or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture of joint destruction
ganglion cyst fluid-filled tumor that commonly develops along the tendons or joint of the wrists or hands but may also appear in the feet
gout joint inflammation caused by uric acid deposits in the joint space
herniated disk rupture of a vertebral disk's center (nucleus pulposus) through its outer edge, causing pain, numbness, or weakness in one or both legs; also called slipped disk or herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP)
hypotonia loss of muscle tone or a diminished resistance to passive stretching
myasthenia gravis chronic, progressive disorder characterized by muscle weakness and droopiness, especially in the eyes, face, throat, and limbs
osteomyelitis inflammation of the bone and bone marrow and the soft tissue that surrounds the bone
Created by: aubreygarcia1993
 

 



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