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Ch 10 Respiratory

Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 10

What is External Respiration? Is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air that is inhaled into the lungs and the blood flowing through the pulmonary capillaries
What is Internal Respiration? A process which takes place between the body cells and the blood, it is OUTSIDE the lungs and inside the body.
By what process does Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide move from blood to tissues or vice versa? diffusion
What is the primary function of the respiratory system? to bring oxygen intothe body and carry carbon dioxide out of the body
Phonation is also called what? Voice production
What are the secondary functions of the respiratory system? Voice Production, body temperature regulation, acid-base balance regulation, and sense of smell.
What is the epiglottis? What is its function? the little flappy thingy. To keep food and particles out of the lungs
What are vocal cords Two fibrous connective tissue bands that stretch across the lumen of the larynx and vibrate as air passes over them.
Where are the vocal cords In the larynx
In what ways does the respiratory system regulate body temperature? By Acid-Base Balance Regulation
What is Acid Base Balance Regulation An important homeostatic mechanism in the body. It regulates the amount of O2 & CO2 in the blood and keeps the pH at a level 7.4
What is the pH range of blood Normal pH is 7.4 but it can range from 7.35 to 7.45
What is the olfactory Sense The sense of smell
How does smell work? receptors are contained in patches of sensory epithelium located up high in the nasal passages
What is the upper respiratory tract All of the respiratory structures outside of the lungs
Name the parts of the URT Nose, Pharynx, larynx and trachea
What is the Lower Respiratory Tract All of the respiratory structures within the lungs
Name the parts of the LRT bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar ducts, aveoli
Name both parts of the pharnyx nasopharynx, oropharynx
what are the nostrils called and what do they do? Also called Nares, and they are the external openings of the respiratory tube that lead into the nasal passages
List what the nasal passages contain and are made up of contain turbinates (nasal conchae) which are thin scroll-like bones covered with nasal epithelium that occupy most of the lumen of the nasal passages
What are the two sets of turbinates called? Dorsal and ventral turbinates
What are the nasal meatus and where are they located? Nasal Meatus are three main passageways which are spaces in the nose created by the turbinates.
Where is the ventral nasal meatus located? Ventral nasal meatus is located between the ventral turbinate and the floor of the nasal passage.
Where is the middle nasal meatus located? The middle nasal meatus is located between the two turbinates.
Where is the dorsal nasal meatus located? The dorsal nasal meatus is located between the dorsal turbinate and the roof of the nasal passage.
Where is the common nasal meatus The common nasal meatus is located on either side of the nasal septium, and is continuous with the other 3 meatuses.
What lines and composes the nasal passages? pseudostratified columnar epithelium
What hairs line and trap particles from the air? cilia
What are the functions of the nasal passages? The nasal passages hosue receptors for sense of smell, condition the inhaled air by warming, humidfying, and filtering it.
How is the air warmed? Air is warmed by blood flowing in blood vessels
How is air humidfied? By the mucus and other fluids on the epithelial surface
What are the reasons air is filtered? Filtering helps remove particulate matter before it reaches the lungs.
How is air filtered? It's filtered due to the mucus lining the nasal passages, and the twists and turns of the turbinates.
How do respiratory infections cut down on filtering air? FIND ANSWER!!!!!
What are paranasal sinuses? Outpouchings of the nasal passages that are contained within spaces in certain skull bones.
Where are the frontal and maxillary sinus's located? Behind the bones they are named after, frontal bone and maxillary bone.
What lines the sinus's? The same ciliated lning as the nasal passages, the cilia keep fluid and debris from accumulating in sinuses and obstructing the openings of the nasal passage
What is Sinusitus? Inflamation of the sinuses due to infection, tumors etc.
How can it be treated? By medication but if ineffective holes may need to be drilled into the sinus to allow drainage.
Why is it painful? Because the buildup of pressure in the sinus cavities.
The rostral end of the pharynx is called? The nasopharynx and the oropharynx.
The caudal end of the pharynx is called? The esophagus & the larynx.
What has to stay open to allow airflow? The pharynx
What works together to prevent swallowing from interfereing with breathing? The larynx and pharynx
What does swallowing require? stop breathing, cover larynx, move material to rear of pharynx, open esophagus, move material into it, open larynx, resume breathing
What is commonly called the voice box? the larynx
What is the larynx made of? segments of cartilage that are connected to each other and the surrounding tissues by muscles
What supports the larynx? the hyoid bone
What are the cartilage components of the larynx? Epiglottis, Arytenoid cartilages, thyroid cartilages, cricoid cartilage
Describe the epiglottis? A single leaf-shapped projects forward from the ventral portion of the a larynx
Describe the arytenoid cartilages? paired attachment site of the vocal cords.Muscles adjust the tension of the vocal cords by moving the cartilages
Describe the thyroid cartilages? Shaped as a V that forms and supports the ventral portion of the larynx.
Descrive the cricoid cartilage? Ring shaped helps form and support the caudal portion of the larynx.
What is the glottis? The glottis is the opening into the larynx
What are found in non-ruminant animals? Vestibular folds (False Vocal Cords)a second set of connective tissue bands
What is not involved in voice production? Vestibular folds
What is laryngela hemiplegia? Also called roaring, it occurs when muscles that tighten cartilage are paralyzed. At rest it is not a problem, when exercises may cause obstruction of the glottis.
How is Roaring repaired? by surgery to remove the ventricle to allow scar tissue to tighten cartilage
What is Laryngeal intubation? The process in which an endotracheal tube is placed through the glottis into the trachea.
What are laryngospasams? sometimes seen in cats when glottis is touched the larynx slams shut. Is a reflex
What is a laryngoscope and what is it used for? an instrument that helps to hold down the epiglottis. Used for intubation
What is aspiration pneumonia? Inflammation of the lungs produced by inhalation of foreign material.
What are the three laryngeal functions? Voice production, prevention of foreign material being inhaled, control of airflow to and from the lungs
How does voice production happen? It originates at the vocal cords, they vibrate and produce sounds. Muscles are attached to arytenoid cartilages and control the tension of the cords. Lessening tension allows lower pitch sound. Tightening allows for higher pitch sounds.
How is foreign material kept from being inhaled? It is accomplished by the epiglottis
How is airflow controlled into and out of the lungs? partially through the epiglottis but also when swallowing occurs through adjustments in the size of the glottis.
How is a cough generated? It is generated behind a closed glottis. Breathing muscles contract compressing the thorax causing pressure to build behind closed glottis. When glottis suddenly opens forceful release of air results in a cough.
What is the windpipes real name? Trachea
What is the trachea lined with? ciliated epithelium
What is the bifurcation of the trachea? occurs at about the level of the heart. This is where the tube is placed in intubation.
Structurally what is the trachea made of? a tube of fibrous tissue and smooth muscle held open by hyaline cartilage rings and lined by the same ciliated epithelium that is present in the nasal passages.
What cartilage rings are C Shaped? Hyaline Cartilage rings
The ______ of the trachea is similar to the nasal passages. Ciliated lining
The _______ on its surface traps tiny particles of debris that has made it down the respiratory tube and it eventually reaches the ______ and it's _____. mucous layer, pharynx, swallowed
What is collapsing trachea? Pushing down of the cartilage area obstructing airflow. It causes a dry honking cough.
__________ causes a dry honking cough. collapsing trachea
Explain what the bronchial tree is? air passages that lead from the bronchi to the alveoli that divide into smaller and smaller passages
___________ can adjust the diameter of each tube? Smooth multi-unit small muscle
_____ divides into smaller and smaller passages. Bronchus
_____ continue to subdivide down into alveolar ducts. Bronchioles
______ ends in alveolar sacs. Alveolar ducts
____ controls this smooth muscle. Autonomic Nervous System
What is bronchodilation? During times of intense physical exercise bronchial smooth muscle relaxes allowing air passagesways to dilate to their maximum
What is Asthma? Bronchioles are sometimes overly sensitive to certain irritants can range from mild to annoying to life threatening. More common in humans and can be seen in cats in summer.
_________ occurs most commonly in cats in the summer. Asthma
What is bronchoconstriction? During relaxed time smooth muscle partially contracts reducing size of air passageway
____ and _____ are exchanged in the alveoli. Carbon dioxide & Oxygen
Alveoli walls are composed of ________. simple squamous epithelium
What are alveoli walls lined with? surfacant
_______ is where external respiration takes place. Alveoli
Surfacant helps prevent what? Alveoli from collapsing as air moves in and out during breathing.
What shape does the two lungs form? A Cone
The _________ is on the diaphragm. Base of lungs
The _________ is near the top and is _________. Apex of lungs, pointed like area
The area between the lungs is called the ___________ and also the ________. mediastinum &
Name the Lobes of the Left Lung. Crainal & Caudal
Name the Lobes of the Right Lung. Cranial & Middle & Caudal & Accessory Lobes
What lung has more lobes than the other? The Right Lung it has four lobes
What animals lungs do not have lobes except for a small accessory lobe on the right lung? The Horse.
What is the Hilius? it is where air, blood, lymph, and nerves enter and leave the lung. It is also the only area of lung that is fastened in place.
What is blood supply to and from the lungs called? Pulmonary circulation
The ________ allows blood to enter the lungs, while the _____ is where blood reenters the heart. Pulmonary Artery, Pulmonary Vein.
What is the consistancy of lungs? Light and spongy in adults, fetal lungs are solid.
How are fetal lungs different from adult lungs? The fetal lungs are solid consistancy because they float in fluid as the fetus develops. Once the fetus has taken a breath of air they become light and spongy as the surfacant prevents the alveoli from collapsing again.
The thoracic cavity is also known as the _____. Thorax ( Chest Cavity)
The ____ are bound ________ , the ____ and ______ are bound ______, and the _____ is bound _______. Thoracic Vetebrae, dorsally, ribs and intercostal muscles, laterally, sternum, ventrally.
What does the Thorax contain? heart, lungs, large blood vessels, nerves, trachea, esophagus, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes
____ is a thin membrane that covers the organs and structires in the thorax and lines the inside of the thoracic cavity. Pleura
What is the visceral layer of pleura? covers the thoracic organs and structures.
What is the parietal layer of pleura? lines the cavity
What is between the pleural layers? lubricating fluid
The ______ is dome shaped. diaphragm
What composes the diaphragm? A thin sheet of skeletal muscles that forms the caudal boundry of the thorax
What happens when that diaphragm contracts? the dome flattens out and enlarges the thorax.
What does the diaphragm help with? Inspiration
What process requires effective movement of air into and out of lungs at an appropriate rate and in sufficient volume to meet the body's needs at any particular time? Respiration
The _______ in the thorax is ______ with respect to ________ pressure. pressure, negative, atmospheric
How does respiration work? It pulls lungs tight against the thoracic wall, flexible nature allows them to conform with shape of the thoracic wall, pleural fluid provides lubrication, lungs follow the thoracic wall.
What does negative pressure also aid in? The return of blood to the heart
What pulls blood into the large veins of the mediastinum? negative pressure
What helps to draw blood from the midsize beins and then dump into the atria? negative pressure
What is pneumothorax? The presence of free air in the thorax.
What causes lung collapse? the loss of negative pressure within the pleural space which allows the lungs to fall away from the thoracic wall because nothing is holding it in place any longer.
Inspiration is the ? process of drawing air into the lungs
Inspiration is also called? Inhalation
What is the basic process? enlargement of the volume of the thoracic cavity by the inspiratory muscles.
What are the main inspiratory muscles? The Diaphragm, External intercostal muscles (located in the external portion of the spaces between the ribs (intercostal spaces)
What is Expiration? Process of pushing air out of the lungs
What is Expiration also called? Exhalation
What happens in Expiration? The thoracic cavity is decreased in size, compressing the lungs and pushes the air out through the respiratory passages
What are the main muscles of expiration? the internal intercostal muscles, and the abdominal muscles.
Does it require as much work as inspiration? NO
How do the muscles work? The intercostal muscles rotate the ribs backwards decreasing the cavity size and the abdominal muscles push the abdominal organs against the caudal surface of the diaphragm making it the dome shape again.
What are the respiratory volumes called? Tidal volume, Minute volume, Residual volume
What is tidal volume? Volume of air inspired and expired during one breath, it varies according to the body's needs, smaller when animal is at rest and larger when excited and active.
What is Minute Volume? Volume of air inspired and expired in one minute. Calculated by multiplying the tidal volume by breaths per minute. Measured in mL or Liters.
What is residual volume? the volume of air remaining in the lungs after maximum expiration, residual volume always remains and lungs will never be completely emptied of air.
How is lung volume measured? with a spirometer
What is gas exchange in the alveoli? simple diffusion process from areas of high concetration to areas of low concentration.
What does atmospheric air contain? 21% Oxygen and 0.03% carbon dioxide
The blood in the lungs is ____ in carbon dioxide and ____ in oxygen. high, low
_____ diffuses from _____ air to blood, _____ diffuses to _______ which is refreshed with oxygen from each breath. Oxygen, alveolar, carbon dioxide, alveolus
What is Dalton's Law? states that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressure of each individual gas.
What is partial pressure? the pressure of each individual gas
How is partial pressure expressed? with a P before chemical symbol for gas
___________ of O2 and CO2 in the blood of __________ capillaries is determined by the __________ of O2 and CO2 in __________. Partial Pressure, alveolar, partial pressure, alveolar air
True or False, The greater the amount of a gas in the air you breath the more concetrated it will be in the blood. True
____ does not require conscious efford although use _______ muscles that are under _______ control. Breathing, skeletal, voluntary
What area of the brain is it controlled by? The Medulla oblongata of the brain stem
What is the Medulla Oblongata known as? The respiratory center, it houses the control systems for inspiration, expiration and breath holding. It subconsciously sends nerve impulses to the muscles to direct them how to contract.
What are the two systems to control breathing? mechanical, chemical
What does the mechanical system do? it sets routine inspiration and expiration limits
What does the chemical system do? It monitors that the levels of certain substances in the blood and directs adjustments in breathing if they get out of balance.
Mechanical control.... operates through stretch receptors in the lungs that set limits on routine insp. & exp. when lungs inflate to a certain point, nerve impulses say lungs are full and stops contractions. Then notifys muscles to start exp.
Chemical control... Monitors blood and affects breathing if something gets out of balance, monitors CO2, pH, O2. CO2 and pH are linked, as CO2 rises pH goes down, if this occurs triggers increase rate and depth of breathing to even it out, vice versa if pH goes up
What are chemoreceptors? Peripheral and Central
What are peripheral chemoreceptors? aortic bodies and carotid bodies
What are central chemoreceptors? found in the medulla of the brain.
What are the normal respiratory rates? 10-30 breath per min in dog, 20-30 breath per min in cat
What is bagging a patient? Term used to describe manual control of an anestetized patients breathing by squeezing and releasing the rebreathing bag.
What can bagging cause? more co2 than normal to be removed from the lungs so it may trigger that the patient will not breathe once bagging stops.
What is hypoxia? decrease in blood o2
What happens if hypoxia occurs? chemical control syst3em signals the respiratory center to increase rate and depth of breathing so more o2 will be taken in.
What is a sneeze? similar to a cough, but originates in the nasal passages, burst of air is directed through nose and mouth in effort to eliminate the irritant
What is a yawn? slow deep breath taken through a wide-open mouth. may be stimulated by slight decrease in oxygen levels, drowsiness, fatigue, and boredom.
What is a sigh? slightly deeper than normal breathing, may serve to expand lungs more than normal. May hear sighing patient under anestesia.
What are hiccups? Spasmodic contractions of the diaphragm accompanied by sudden closure of the glottis, usually self-limiting
What is the medulla oblongata pt 2 Can only control breathing consciously for short period before autonomic kicks in.
Created by: 1401169304



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