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"LMS Ch 22.2 DR

"LMS Ch 22.2 Directed Reading

How is Earth’s atmosphere heated? Earth’s atmosphere is heated by the transfer of energy from the sun.
Name the two primary sources of heat in the atmosphere. the absorption of the sun’s rays by gases in the atmosphere; ocean and land surfaces absorb energy and then give off that energy as heat
the waves that make up all forms of radiation electromagnetic waves
the distance from any point on a wave to the identical point on the next wave wavelength
all of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation electromagnetic spectrum
all forms of energy that travel through space as waves, including the energy that Earth receives from the sun radiation
What form of radiation can humans see? visible light
What are three forms of radiation that humans cannot see? ultraviolet light, X rays, radio waves
How fast do waves of radiation travel through space? 300,000 km/s
How are the wavelengths of visible light seen? Waves of visible light are seen as a spectrum of colors. Ultraviolet rays, x rays, and gamma rays are shorter than visible light. Infrared rays and radio rays are longer.
Almost all radiation that has a wavelength shorter than the wavelengths of visible light is absorbed by the upper atmosphere.
X rays, gamma rays, and ultraviolet rays are absorbed by molecules of nitrogen and oxygen in the mesosphere and thermosphere.
Ultraviolet rays are absorbed and act upon oxygen molecules to form ozone in the stratosphere.
Solar rays with longer wavelengths, such as visible and infrared waves, reach the lower atmosphere.
Most incoming infrared radiation is absorbed by carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other complex molecules in the __________________ troposphere
How much of the radiation from visible light waves is absorbed as they pass through the atmosphere? a small amount
What causes scattering? Clouds, dust, water droplets, and gas molecules in the atmosphere disrupt the paths of radiation from the sun and cause scattering.
What happens when particles and gas molecules in the atmosphere reflect and bend solar rays? The deflection causes rays to travel in all directions without changing their wavelengths.
What does scattering do to solar rays that are traveling to Earth? Scattering sends some of the radiation back into space. The remaining rays continue toward Earth’s surface.
What effect does scattering have on the sky’s appearance? Scattering makes the sky appear blue and the sun appear red at sunrise and sunset.
What happens to solar energy that reaches Earth’s surface? The surface either absorbs or reflects the energy.
What are eight characteristics on which the amount of energy that is absorbed or reflected by Earth’s surface depends? The amount absorbed and reflected depend on color, texture, composition, volume, mass, transparency, state of matter, and specific heat of the material on which the solar radiation falls.
What is the fraction of solar radiation that is reflected off a particular surface called? albedo
What is Earth’s albedo? Explain your answer. 0.3; 30% of the solar energy reaching Earth’s atmosphere is either reflected or scattered
Solar radiation that is not reflected is absorbed.
When Earth’s surface absorbs solar radiation, the surface materials are heated by short-wavelength infrared rays and visible light.
Heated materials on Earth’s surface convert energy into infrared rays of longer wavelengths and reemit energy as infrared rays.
What happens to the infrared rays that are reemitted into the atmosphere? Gas molecules in the atmosphere, such as water vapor and carbon dioxide, absorb the infrared rays.
What does the absorption of thermal energy from the ground do to Earth’s surface? Absorption of thermal energy heats the lower atmosphere and keeps Earth’s surface warmer than it would be if there were no atmosphere.
Warm air near Earth’s surface sometimes bends light rays to cause an effect called a _____________________. mirage
One process that helps heat Earth’s atmosphere that is similar to the process that heats a greenhouse is called the . greenhouse effect
The warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of Earth that occurs when carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases in the air absorb and reradiate infrared radiation is called the . greenhouse effect
How does the amount of solar energy that enters Earth’s atmosphere generally compare to the amount that escapes into space? The amount of solar energy that enters Earth’s atmosphere is about equal to the amount that escapes into space.
What is one human activity that may have caused the average temperature of the atmosphere to increase in recent years? The burning of fossil fuels has increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which may intensify the greenhouse affect and cause Earth to become warmer in some areas and cooler in others.
What is the primary factor that affects how much solar energy reaches any point on Earth’s surface? latitude
Near the equator, the rays of the sun strike the ground at an angle of about 90%.
Temperatures are higher at the equator because solar energy is concentrated in a small area.
Seasonal variations in temperature occur because of the tilt of Earth’s axis.
Why does the amount of water in the air affect the temperature of a region? Water vapor stores heat.
Which regions will generally have more moderate temperatures? regions receiving ocean winds
Why are the warmest hours of the day usually mid- to late afternoon? Earth’s surface must absorb energy for a while before enough heat has been absorbed and reradiated to raise the temperature of the atmosphere.
What happens to the energy when sunlight hits Earth at an angle smaller than 90°? Solar energy is spread out over a larger area and so is less intense.
Why are average temperatures higher at the equator than near the poles? Energy at the equator reaches Earth’s surface at an angle near 90° and is more intense. Energy reaches the poles at an angle smaller than 90° and is less intense.
Why does the Northern Hemisphere have higher temperatures for one part of the year and lower temperatures the rest? When the N. Hemisphere is tilted toward the sun it receives more direct sunlight and temps are at their highest. When the N Hemisphere is tilted away from the sun it receives less direct sunlight and tems are at their lowest.
Why does the amount of water in the air affect the temperature of a region? water vapor stores heat
Why do areas of high elevation become warm during the day and cool quickly at night? Thinner air at high elevations contains less water vapor and carbon dioxide to absorb heat.
Why do desert temperatures vary widely between day and night? In the desert there is little water vapor to hold the heat of the day.
Why are land areas close to large bodies of water generally cooler during the day and warmer at night than similar inland areas? Water heats up and cools down slower than land does, so the temperature of water changes less than the temperature of land.
As they become heated, molecules in a substance move faster.
What effect do collisions between molecules have on the molecules? It warms them.
The transfer of energy as heat from one substance to another by direct contact is called conduction.
Solid substances are good conductors because molecules are close together.
Air is a poor conductor because molecules are far apart.
Conduction heats only the lowest few centimeters of the atmosphere because air comes into direct contact with Earth.
What is the primary cause of the heating of the lower atmosphere? The heating of the lower atmosphere is primarily the result of the distribution of heat through the troposphere by convection.
The movement of matter due to differences in density caused by temperature variations resulting in the transfer of heat is called . convection
When does convection occur? Convection occurs when gases or liquids are heated unevenly.
What happens to air heated by radiation or conduction? the air becomes less dense and is pushed by nearby cooler air; the cooler air becomes warmer, and the cycle repeats.
How is Earth’s atmosphere warmed evenly? The continuous cycle in which cold air sinks and warm air rises (convection) warms Earth’s atmosphere evenly.
Why is the atmospheric pressure lower beneath a mass of warm air? Warm air is less dense than cool air. It exerts less pressure than the same volume of cooler air does. So the atmospheric pressure is lower beneath a mass of warm air.
Explain how atmospheric pressure differences create winds. As dense, cool air moves into a low-pressure region, the less dense, warmer air is pushed upward. These pressure differences, which are the result of the unequal heating that causes convection, create winds.
Created by: tbfreema

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