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# PS SEM EXAM

### Physical Science 1st Semester Exam Coach Leach

TermDefinition
Potential Energy The energy of a system due to its position or condition.
Kinetic Energy The energy of motion that depends only on the system's mass and speed.
Thermal Energy The average sum of the kinetic energies of all the particles in an object. Directly proportional to the temperature of the object.
Acoustic Energy The transmission of energy through matter by the periodic longitudinal motion of particles (mechanical waves)
Electrical Energy The ability to do work through the action of the electromagnetic force on or by electrical charges.
Magnetic Energy The ability of a magnetic field to do work on magnetic objects and moving electrical charges.
Chemical Energy The potential energy stored in the chemical bonds between atoms that is released or absorbed during chemical reactions.
Mass Energy The energy equivalent to matter itself, according to the equation in Einstein's special theory of relativity.
Efficiency For a machine or process, the ratio of energy or work produced to the energy or work that was put into the machine or process.
Conservation of Energy The total amount of energy entering a process equals the sum of all forms of energy that exist at the end of the process.
Momentum A property of a moving system that is proportional to its speed and mass. Isaac Newton called it the quantity of motion.
Elastic Collision A collision between two objects in which the momentums and kinetic energies of the colliding objects are conserved.
Partially Elastic Collision A collision between two objects in which momentum is conserved but some of their kinetic energies is lost to other forms of energy during the collision. The objects are slightly or permanently deformed but rebound from the collision.
mechanical work The energy transferred to a system by an external force when it acts on the system to move it.
power The rater of doing work, measured in watts.
mechanical advantage A measure of the reduction in effort to do a certain amount of work when using a simple machine.
distance principle When using a simple machine, the distance through which the effort force acts equals the distance the load moves multiplied by the MA of the machine.
fulcrum The point about which a lever pivots or rotates.
law of torques A law that states that with a lever system in rotational equilibrium, the effort torque equals the resistance torque.
wheel and axle Any rotational mechanical system having unrestricted range of motion which is also a modification of a lever system with the axle acting functionally as a fulcrum
gear A wheel with teeth on its perimeter that mesh with similar teeth of other gears to do work while producing rotational motion.
pully A wheel and axle system with a groove around the perimeter of the wheel; in which a rope, cable or belt moves with the wheel as it rotates and is also an "application" of the lever principle.
inclined plane In its most basic form, a two dimensional surface whose opposite ends are at different heights forming the basis for wedges, stairways, ramps, and screws.
IMA Stands for ideal mechanical advantage and is used for simplicity as it ignores the effects of friction.
Fluid Pressure A property of all fluids in which pressure is exerted equally in all directions at any point in the fluid.
Hydrostatic Pressure Pressure at a point within a volume of water or any liquid based only on the depth of the point within the liquid.
Achimede's Principle The buoyant force exerted by a fluid on an immersed object is equal to the weight of the fluid that the object displaces.
Specific Gravity The ratio of a substance's density to water's density.
Pascal's Principle States that changes of pressure on the surface of a confined fluid are exerted equally through the fluid and at all points on the fluid's container.
Bernoulli's Principle States that the total energy (represented by kinetic energy, potential energy and pressure) for a confined ideal fluid flowing through a pipe is conserved at all locations within the pipe.
Coanda Effect The tendency of a fluid flowing past a curved surface to follow the surface.
Boyle's Law The volume of a fixed quantity of a confined gas is inversely proportional to its pressure when its temperature is held constant.
Charles's Law The volume of a fixed quantity of a confined gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature when its pressure is held constant.
Created by: CoachLeach

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