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Unit 4:3

Week 15

gene A region of DNA that contains the code to make a protein or RNA
Central Dogma of gene expression Information flow DNA-RNA-Protein
codon Three consecutive nucleotides in mRNA that specify the insertion of an amino acid or the release of a polypeptide chain during translation
Messenger RNA provides “message”
Ribosomal RNA provides “meeting place”
Transfer RNA does translation
transcription take place Nucleus
the final product of transcription mRNA
enzyme adds RNA nucleotides to create mRNA 5’ cap, poly (A) tail are added to the end
Adenine - RNA uracil
Thymine - RNA Adenine
Guanine - RNA cytosine
Cytosine - RNA guanine
strand is transcribed to make mRNA template strand
Introns non–protein-coding intervening sequences that are spliced from mRNA during processing
Exons sequence present in protein-coding mRNA after completion of pre-mRNA splicing
translation take place In the ribosome
final product of translation Amino acid sequence
Small ribosomal The binding and reading of mRNA during translation
Large ribosomal Binds mRNA and mediates the interaction between mRNA codons and tRNA anticodons
codons be found mRNA
anti-codons be found at one end of a transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule
relationship between a codon and an anti-codon are complementary to each other
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase It attaches an amino acid to tRNA with the help of an enzyme
Initiation mRNA attaches to ribosome, tRNA finds start codon
Elongation Codon recognition, Peptide bond formation, Translocation
Termination When stop codons are recognized, ribosomes break apart
20 amino acids 64 codons
point mutation Chemical change in just one base pair of a gene
Physical Radiation
Chemical toxins
base insertions or deletions tend to have a larger effect than base substitutions They cause too much of a genetic change which can be harmful for the individual
Deletions Part of chromosome is last
Duplications Part of chromosome is copied
Inversions Part of chromosome in reverse order
Translocations Part of chromosome is moved to a new location
Created by: Ollie2020



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