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Unit 4:1

Week 12

conditions is sexual and asexual reproduction advantageous Evolutionary adaptation depends on a population’s genetic variation
process of meiosis ensures that offspring have the same amount of DNA as their parents creates haploid cells (half the number of chromosomes) that come together to form a diploid cell (complete number of chromosomes)
genetic variation is advantageous for a population of organisms Evolution occurs which will allow for the species with different variations serve longer than others
Crossing over Synaptonemal complex supports the exchange of chromosomal segments between homologous nonsister chromatids
Independent orientation of chromosomes When cells divide during meiosis, homologous chromosomes are randomly distributed to daughter cells, and different chromosomes segregate independently of each other
Random fertilization is the result of an immense number of genetic possibilities created during independent assortment and crossing over
meiosis The nuclear division that forms haploid cells from diploid cells
homologous chromosome The nucleus contains two copies of each chromosome
Autosome considered inheritance patterns among non-sex chromosomes
Sex chromosome a chromosome involved with determining the sex of an organism, typically one of two kinds
chromosome number of a cell after meiosis The number is cut in half by two
Meiosis I separates homologous chromosomes
Meiosis II separates sister chromatids
Only occurs in meiosis I Chromosomes replicate and form sister chromatids, Crossing over, Two cells are formed
DNA replication mitosis Occurs during interphase before nuclear division begins
DNA replication meiosis Occurs once, during the interphase before meiosis I begins
Number of divisions mitosis One, including prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
Number of divisions meiosis Two, each including prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase
synapsis of homologous chromosomes mitosis Does not occur
synapsis of homologous chromosomes meiosis during prophase 1, the homologous chromosomes join along their length, forming tetrads (groups of four chromatids); synapsis is associated with crossing over between nonsister chromatids
Number of daughter cells and genetic composition mitosis Two, each diploid (2n) and genetically identical to the parent cell
Number of daughter cells and genetic composition meiosis Four, each haploid (n), containing half as many chromosomes as the parent cell; genetically nonidentical to the parent cell and to each other
role in the animal body mitosis Enables multicellular adult to arise from zygote; produces cells for growth and tissue repair
role in the animal body meiosis Produces gametes; reduces chromosome number by half and introduces genetic variability among the gametes
Independent assortment the number of possible combinations = 2^n, Occurs in meiosis I
Principle of Independent Assortment NOT true When there is a linked trait
genotypes and phenotypes from a testcross Upper and lowercase letters
Incomplete dominance Denoting the expressions of two contrasting alleles such that the individual displays an intermediate phenotype, Heterozygous dominate
Codominance Variation on incomplete dominance in which both alleles for the same characteristic are simultaneously expressed in the heterozygote, ABO blood group
Pleiotropy The production by a single gene of two or more apparently unrelated effects, blindness
Polygenic inheritance The heredity of complex characters that are determined by a large number of genes, each one usually having a relatively small effect, human skin
Created by: Ollie2020



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