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Key Stage 3 Science

What does accelerate mean? To change the motion of an object- a change in speed or direction
What value is the resultant force, if the forces on an object are balanced? Zero
What is upthrust? A force that pushes things up in liquids and gases.
How do we represent forces on diagram? A force is represented by an arrow. The length of the line is proportional to the magnitude of the force and the arrow points in the direction of the force. The arrows should be “scaled” to the forces. The arrow start where the force acts.
What is the normal reaction force The normal reaction force is a contact force due to one object being on top of another. The bottom object produces a normal reaction on the top object.
What is drag and in which direction does it act? Another name for air resistance or water resistance it always act in the opposite direction to the direction of motion of the object.
What does the term dissipated energy mean? Dissipated energy is wasted energy spread out to the surroundings e.g. sound and thermal
Explain what the term fossil fuel means and give 3 examples A fuel formed from the dead remains of organisms over millions of years by the total time(e.g. coal, oil or natural gas, nuclear).
What does the term renewable mean? An energy resource that will never run out (e.g. solar power).
What is another name for strain energy? Elastic potential energy
What is the law of conservation of energy? The idea that energy can never be created or destroyed, only transferred from one store to another.
What unit is energy measured in? joules
Describe how friction occurs and its affect on the movement of an object? A force between two objects that are touching. It usually acts to slow things down or prevent movement.
What does the term contact force mean? Give 2 examples Contact means the two objects have to touch to produce a force on each other. Eg friction, upthrust, normal reaction
Explain what a renewable energy source is and give one example An energy resource that will never run out (e.g. solar power).
Describe the energy change as a ball is kicked upwards and reaches it maximum height Stored kinetic energy is transformed into gravitational energy.
What is average speed? The total distance something travels divided by the total time
What instrument is used to measure distance in the lab? A meter ruler
On a distance time graph what is the value of the gradient if the object is stationary? Zero
If the gradient of a distance time graph is increasing how is the objects motion changing? It is accelerating
What does a machine that is a distance multiplier do? A lever or other machine where the load moves further than the effort
What does the term pivot or fulcrum refer to? A point about which something turns. Another name for fulcrum.
What instrument is used to measure instantaneous speed? Light gates to measure instantaneous speed or the range meter, attached to the alba.
What is the equation for calculating total distance travelled? total distance(m) = average speed (m/s) x time (s)
Define "speed" How much distance is covered in a given time
Define "acceleration" How much speed increases or decreases in a given time
State the equation for calculating speed Speed = distance/time
State the equation for calculating acceleration Acceleration = change in speed/time
State the units for speed m/s or km/hr
State the units for acceleration metres per second squared (m/s2)
What does a straight line on a distance-time graph show? Object travelling at a constant speed
What does a curved line on a distance-time graph show? Object accelerating or decelerating
What does a straight line on a velocity-time graph show? Object accelerating
What does a horizontal line on a distance-time graph show? Object at rest (not moving)


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