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Key Stage 3 Science

State the 4 steps in selective breeding 1) choose parents with desired characteristics, 2) breed parents together, 3) choose offspring with desired characteristics and breed together, 4) repeat over multiple generations
Give 2 examples of selective breeding Animals with more meat and plants with beautiful flowers
Give one disadvantage of selective breeding Inbreeding can lead to genetic diseases
Why does a plant photosynthesise? In order to make food (glucose)
Where does photosynthesis occur in a plant? The leaf
Write the word equation for photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide + water – glucose and oxygen
What are the products of photosynthesis used for within the plant? Respiration to produce energy
List the three organs of a plant, starting with the lowest. Roots, stem and leaves
Draw and label a plant cell:
Name the substance found in chloroplasts Chlorophyll
Label the following cross section of a leaf: Sunlight
Name what the xylem vessels transport Water and mineral ions
Name what the phloem transports Sugars
Starch is a sugar. It is tested using the reagent iodine. What colour will iodine turn when added to starch Black
Describe the three functions of the roots. To transport water, To transport mineral ions,To anchor the plant into the ground
Describe two ways roots are adapted to carry out their functions. Branched and Spread out, Root hair cells
Name the substance found in chloroplasts Chlorophyll
Draw and label a plant cell:
Why do plants need oxygen? To carry out respiration (energy)
In order for a plant to survive, what must it be provided with? Water, sunlight, food, oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Lime water is clear. When it is reacted with carbon dioxide, what colour will it turn? Cloudy/milky
Why do farmers carry out selective breeding? To ensure they get products that have the desired (best) characteristics.
Is photosynthesis endothermic or exothermic? Endothermic
State the equation of photosynthesis. 6CO2 + 6H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Where does photosynthesis occur in the cell? What is photosynthesis?
Chloroplast Building glucose from carbon dioxide and water using light
Name the pigment in chloroplasts that absorbs light. Chlorophyll
State an adaptation of the leaf for efficient photosynthesis. Broad leaves/Thin/Have chlorophyll/Air spaces/Guard cells to regulate stomata opening
How does higher light intensity affect the rate of photosynthesis? Increase
Apart from light and carbon dioxide concentration, name one other limiting factor of photosynthetic rate. Temperature/Chlorophyll levels
Why would photosynthetic rate decrease at higher temperatures? Enzymes become denatured
Name one use of glucose in plants. Respiration/Make and strenghten cellulose cell wall/Make starch for storage/Make lipids as energy store
What is the word equation for photosynthesis? Water + carbon dioxide -> glucose + oxygen
What is the symbol equation for photosynthesis? 6H2O + 6CO2 -> 6O2 + C6H12O6
Name the three organs in a plant Roots, stem, leaf
Define "transpiration" Evaporation of water from a leaf
What is the function of the palisade cells? To absorb light for photosynthesis
What is the function of the waxy cuticle? To protect the leaf
What is the function of the spongy layer? Creates spaces to allow CO2 to diffuse into the leaf
State three ways that a leaf is adapted for gas exchange Large surface area, thin, stomata
Give an example of diffusion occurring in a plant Gas exchange (oxygen and carbon dioxide)
Where is osmosis used within a plant? Water moving into the root
Define "translocation" Movement of sugars through a plant
Where is active transport used within a plant? To move minerals into the root
Which substance is used to test for the presence of starch? Iodine solution
What is the colour of iodine solution if starch is present? Blue/black
What is the colour of iodine solution if starch is not present? Orange/brown
State one hazard associated with using iodine solution Harmful
Why is a leaf boiled in ethanol before being tested for starch? To break down the cell walls
State one hazard associated with using ethanol It is flammable
What is starch? An insoluble store of glucose
How is starch formed in a plant? During photosynthesis


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