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Key Stage 3 Science

Define aerobic respiration Glucose reacts with oxygen to release energy
Describe how elements and compounds are different in terms of the atoms they contain? In elements all the atoms are of the same type. In compounds atoms of different elements are joined together.
What are the negatively charged particles in atoms called? electrons
What are the two particles in the nucleus of an atom? Protons and Neutrons
State the meaning of the phrase Atomic Number The number of protons in the atom
What is the maximum of electrons that can held in the first, second and third electron shells of an atom? 2 in the first, 8 in the second, 8 in the third
What do we know about the total masses of the reactants and products in a chemical reaction? They are equal
What does a chemical formulae tell you? The number of atoms of each element that are joined in its molecules, or the ratio of atoms of each element in the compound.
Describe the difference between a physical and chemical change? No new substances are formed in physical changes, at least one new substance is formed in a chemical change
Name two signs of a chemical change · Colour change, · Gas produced · Solid formed from solution · Energy Change.
What do we call a statement in words of the reactants and products in a chemical reaction A chemical change
What do we know about all the atoms in a sample of a pure element? They are all of the same type
What is the mass number of an atom? The number of protons plus the number of neutrons.
According to Dalton’s theory what happens to atoms in chemical reactions? They rearrange themselves to make new substances
What are the names of group 1, 7 and 0 of the periodic table Alkali Metals, Halogens, Nobel Gases
What do we know about the properties of elements in the same group of the periodic table? The have the same properties
What changes of state happen at the melting and freezing point ? Solid to Liquid and Liquid to Solid
What does it mean if a substance is described as malleable? It is possible to beat and bend the substance into a different shape
List the three common properties of metals Three from ● high melting points ● solids at room temperature ● strong and flexible ● malleable ● shiny (when polished) ● good conductors of heat and electricity.
List the three common properties of non- metals Three from ● low melting point ● brittle(when solid) ● not shiny ● poor conductors of heat and electricity.
What do we call a substance that changes colour in solution of different acidity and alkalinity An indicator
What happens to the temperature of a pure substance during a change of state? It stays constant
What is the most important difference between metal oxides and non-metal oxides. Metal oxides tend to be alkaline Non-metal oxides tend to be acidic.
Give 4 properties of metals "*High melting point *Good thermal and electrical conductors *Ductile *Malleable
" Give 4 properties of non-metals "*Low melting point *Poor thermal and electrical conductors *Brittle
" Define "alloy" (extension only) Mixture of two elements, one is a metal
Why are alloys hard? (extension only) Atoms are different sizes so can't slide over each other
What is the name for the smaller number given for each element? Atomic number
What is the name for the bigger number given for each element? Mass number
How do you calculate the number of protons for an element? Use the atomic number
Name 6 alkali metals in order of reactivity (low to high) Lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium, francium
When cut, how do alkali metals (group 1) appear? Shiny
What is formed when alkali metals (group 1) react with water? Alkaline metal hydroxide
What happens to reactivity as you move down the alkali metals (group 1)? Increases
How do you calculate the number of electrons for an element? Use the atomic number
How do you calculate the number of neutrons for an element? Mass number - atomic number
How are elements arranged in the periodic table? In order of atomic number (lowest to highest)
The column (group) in the periodic table tells us the … Number of electrons in the outer shell
What is the name of the elements found in the middle of the periodic table Transition metals
Why did Mendeleev do when creating the modern periodic table? (extension only) Left gaps to make the pattern fit
How do you calculate the relative formula mass of a compound? (extension only) Add up the mass numbers
Name the 5 halogens (group 7) in order of reactivity (low to high) Astatine, Iodine, Bromine, Chlorine, Fluorine
State 3 properties of the halogens (group 7) Non-metal, highly reactive, diatomic
What happens to reactivity as you move down the halogens (group 7)? Decreases
Recall the reactivity series of metals from high to low reactivity Potassium, sodium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, copper
Describe the reaction of potassium with water Produces hydrogen, heat and a lilac flame
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