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# 8I

### Key Stage 3 Science

What is the name for when a liquid changes into a gas? Evaporation.
What is density? The amount of mass in one cubic centimetre of a substance.
Draw the particle structure of a solid. Lots of circles close together.
Which one has the highest density: a solid, a liquid or a gas? Solid
What happens to the density of a solid when it is heated? It decreases as it expands.
Is a change of state a physical or chemical change? Physical change
Name two things that can increase the density of a substance. Decrease the volume, increase the mass.
On a temperature-time graph, how do you know when a change of state has occurred? Where there is a flat, horizontal line / at a constant temperature.
What does “compress” mean? To squeeze into a smaller volume of space.
What piece of equipment is used to measure the temperature? Thermometer
Is ice more or less dense than water? Less dense
How do you find the volume of an irregular shape? Fill up a eureka can with water and then place the object inside – the volume of water than comes out of the can is equal to the volume of the object.
Name two things that can decrease the density of a substance. Decrease the mass, increase the volume.
Which has the smallest density: a solid, liquid or a gas? Gas
What causes pressure in a fluid? When the particles of eh fluid hit the side of the container that they are in.
What is the formula for calculating the density of an object? Density = mass / volume
Give two examples of a resistive force. Any two from :Water resistance, air resistance, friction.
What happens to the density of an object when it is compressed? Increases.
How do you calculate the upthrust acting on an object? Weight in air – apparent weight in water.
If an object floats, is it’s density more than, less than or equal to water’s density? Less than.
Name two ways that a drag force can be increased: Any two from: Increasing the frontal surface area, moving faster, not being streamlined.
What piece of equipment is used to find the weight of an object? Newton meter.
Which TWO states of matter are fluids? Liquid and Gas.
Name two things that can increase the pressure created by a fluid. Any two from: Increasing the number of particles, increasing the temperature, decreasing the volume.
Define "pressure" The force exerted over an area
State the two ways that pressure on a surface can be increased 1. Increase the force 2. decrease the area
State the equation used to calculate pressure P=F/A, Pressure=Force/Area
State the units of pressure N/m2 or Pascals
State the reason that pressure in a fluid increases with depth Increased weight of fluid above
Define "fluid" Liquid or gas
Define "upthrust" The upward force that a liquid or gas exerts on a body floating in it
Define "atmospheric pressure" The pressure caused by the weight of the air above a surface
State the cause of pressure in a fluid Particles hitting the surface of the container
State why an object floats If the upthrust balances the weight
Name the 3 states of matter solid, liquid, gas
Describe motion of particles in a solid, liquid and gas S = Vibrating, L = Sliding, G = quick & random
What is the name for a solid turning into a liquid? Melting
What is the name for the change of state when a liquid changes to a gas? Evaporation
In which state do the particles have strong bonds between them? Solid
In which state do the particles have no bonds between them? Gas
How do the particles move in a solid? Vibrate
How do the particles move in a liquid? Slide over each other
How do the particles move in a gas? Quick and random
In which state gas diffusion NOT happen? Solid
In which state can particles NOT be compressed? Solid and Liquid
In which state do particles stay in a fixed position? Solid
What is the boiling point of water? 100⁰C
What is the melting point of water? 0⁰C
What is the name for a liquid turning into a gas? Boiling
What is the name for a gas turning into a liquid? Condensation
What is the name for a liquid turning into a solid? Freezing
What is the name for a gas turning into a solid? Sublimation
What is the name given to the process of a liquid turning into a gas at the surface of the liquid? Evaporation
Define "boiling point" The temperature at which a liquid turns into a gas
Define "diffusion" The movement of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration
Give the properties of solids particles arranged in a fixed position, vibrate in a fixed position, particles very close, cannot flow
Give the properties of iquids particles randomly arranged, move around each other, close, can flow
Give the properties of gases particles randomly arranged, move quickly in all directions, far apart, can flow
Define "density" A measure of compactness and ratio of mass to volume
How much mass a substance contains compared to it's volume is… density
State the equation which links density, mass and volume ρ=m/v
State the units of density kg/m3
What two things are needed to determine density mass of sample, volume of sample
How can you determine the volume of a solid? regular solid = measuring side and calculating volume (l x w x h); using a eureka can and measuring the volume of displaced water

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