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### Sound and Waves

TermDefinition
wave a disturbance that transfers energy from one point to another
transverse wave mechanical or electromagnetic wave that moves up and down
compressional wave (or longitudinal wave) mechanical wave that moves back and forth
crest highest point of transverse wave
trough lowest point of transverse wave
compression The part of a compressional/longitudinal wave where the particles of the medium are close together. (crest)
rarefaction a part in a compressional/longitudinal wave where the particles are spread apart (trough)
wavelength (amount of energy) is measured crest to crest OR trough to trough
frequency (pitch/color) number of crests OR troughs that pass a point in one unit of time
amplitude (volume/intensity/brightness) height from the crest OR trough to the midpoint (in sound: the wider the compression = greater volume)
sound wave compressional wave produced by vibrations in matter (mechanical wave)
Doppler effect An observed change in the frequency of a wave when the source or observer is moving. The frequency and amplitude are higher when the source and observer are closer together.
energy (and waves) shorter wavelengths/higher frequencies have more; longer wavelengths/lower frequencies have less; higher amplitudes have more; lower amplitudes have less (amplitude impacts more than frequency)
sound wave in a vacuum (like space) cannot travel because there are no molecules (medium-solid
electromagnetic wave in a vacuum (like space) can travel because no molecules are needed to transfer energy (no medium-solid
transmission passing through an object with no disturbance, change, or distortion
absorption wave is taken in or stopped
reflection wave is bounced off an object, changing its direction
refraction the bending or scattering of waves (usually because of change in medium)
diffusion scattering of waves in all directions
diffraction The bending of a wave as it moves around an obstacle or passes through a narrow opening
independent variable The outcome factor (result); the variable that may change in response to manipulation of the independent variable.(effect)
dependent variable The outcome factor (result); the variable that may change in response to manipulation of the independent variable.(effect)
Created by: akguidry

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