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Contact Forces, Newton's Laws of Motion, Kinetic Energy

force push or pull
contact force A force that is exerted only when two objects are touching. (examples: friction, elastic forces, applied force, and normal force--opposite of gravity)
Newton's 1st Law of Motion a physical law stating that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and an object moving in a straight line at a constant speed tends to continue moving that way
inertia Tendency of a moving object to keep moving in a straight line or an object at rest to stay at rest
balanced forces when two equal forces are applied to an object in opposite directions
unbalanced forces Forces that cause an object to change its motion (speed or direction)
Newton's 2nd Law of Motion a physical law that states that an object's acceleration depends on the object's mass and the amount of net force applied to it (more mass = less acceleration; more force = more acceleration)
mass the amount of matter in an object
acceleration change of speed (velocity) per unit of time (Note: acceleration due to gravity is 9.8m/s-squared--or m/s/s--for every second an object falls
Newton's 3rd Law of Motion a physical law that states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction (exactly 2 objects)
action force the initial push or pull of one object on another object
reaction force the push or pull of a second object back on the object that started the push or pull
potential energy Stored energy (measured in Joules)
kinetic energy energy in motion (measured in Joules)
speed distance divided by time
velocity speed and direction
momentum mass x speed
law of conservation of energy energy is neither created nor destroyed (but can be transferred or transformed into other types of energy)
KE ∝ m kinetic energy is directly proportionate to mass (as mass increases
KE ∝ v^2 (velocity squared) kinetic energy equals the square of the speed of an object (as velocity (speed + direction) increases
PE ∝ m AND PE ∝ height potential energy is directly proportionate to mass or height
linear graph a line graph in which the data points yield a straight line (KE ∝ m
quadratic graph a line graph in which the data points yield a sloped line or parabola (only positive numbers for KE) (KE ∝ v^2)
independent variable the one factor that is changed (manipulated) by the experimenter (cause)
dependent variable The outcome factor (result); the variable that may change in response to manipulation of the independent variable.(effect)
Created by: akguidry



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