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Alexandria Hess

Physiology Week 1-5

QuestionAnswer
Extrinsic control usually involves which mode of regulation? Nervous and endocrine
the body naturally changes some set points to different values at different times of day. These daily cycles are called Circadian Cycles
The relatively constant state maintained by the body is known as homeostasis
Many complex processes of the body are coordinated at many levels. These include Intracellular, Intrinsic, and Extrinsic
What term describes a signal traveling toward a particular center or point of reference Afferent
Which level of control operates at the cell level, often using genes and enzymes to regulate cell function? Intracellular Regulation
Effectors can be described as Organs that directly influence controlled physiological variables
events that lead to an immune response to an infection or the formation of a blood clot are examples of positive feedback
which of the following is a basic component of every feedback control loop sensor mechanism integrating center effector feedback all of the above all of the above
because negative feedback control systems oppose changes that are opposite in the direction of the initial disturbance they are slowed or maintained in the homeostatic range.
to accomplish self-regulation, a highly complex and integrated communication control system or network is required. This type of network is called feedback control loop
the impact of effector activity on sensors may be positive or negative. Therefore, homeostatic control mechanisms are categorized as organs that are directly influenced by physiological variables or mechanisms
processes for maintaining or restoring homeostasis are known as homeostatic control mechanisms
the concept that information may flow ahead to another process to trigger a change in anticipation of an event that will follow is feed-forward
the normal reading or range is called the set point
local control or _____, intrinsic mechanisms often make use of chemical signals. autoregulation
the normal reading or range of normal is called set poitn
the term that literally means self-immunity autoimmunity
pathogenesis can be defined as the course of a disease development
negative feedback control systems oppose a change
negative feedback mechanisms minimize changes in blood glucose levels maintain hemostasis are responsible for an increased rate of sweating when air temp is higher then body temp all of the above all of the above
which of the following is a protein substance with no DNA or RNA and is thought to be the cause of mad cow disease prion
intracellular parasites that consist of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat and sometimes by a lipoprotein envelope are called viruses
the normal reading or range of normal is called the set point
shivering to try to raise your body temp back to normal would be na example of the body trying to maintain homeostasis a positive feedback mechanism a negative feedback mechanism both A and C both A and C
pathogenesis can be defined as the course of disease development
the body's thermostat is located in the hypothalamus
the contraction of the uterus during the birth of a baby is an example of ___ feedback positive
negative feedback control systems oppose a change
epidemiology is the study of the ____ of diseases in human populations occurrence distribution transmission all of the above all of the above
If the secretion of oxytocin during childbirth operated as a negative feedback control loop, what effect would it have on uterine contractions oxytocin would inhibit uterine contractions
homeostasis can best be described as a state of relative constancy
which of the following is not one of the basic components in a feedback control loop? effector mechanism transmitter sensor integrating center transmitter
positive feedback control systems accelerate a change
intrinsic control is sometimes called autoregulation
of the pathogenic organisms which of the following are the most complex tapeworms
the term that literally means self immunity is autoimmunity
which of the following may put one at risk for developing a given disease environment stress lifestyle all of the above all of the above
of the 11 major body systems, which is the lease involved in maintaining homeostasis reproductive
which of the following is a basic component of every feedback control loop sensor mechanism integrating center effector feedback all of the above all of the above
proteins are polymers of amino acids
ATP: is the form of energy that cells generally use
what determines how a protein preforms shape
T/F a triglyceride is composed of a glycerol molecule and three of the same type of fatty acid False
in base pairing of DNA molecules _____ is bound to ______ adenine and thymine cytosine and guanine
T/F RNA and DNA have the same pyrimidine bases but different purine bases False
the most important monosaccharide is glucose
T/F when two amino acids are joined, a peptide bond is formed and an H+ ion is released False
the lipid that is often referred to as a tissue hormone is prostaglandin
which of the following is polymer of glucose that is sometimes referred to as animal starch glycogen
the carbon containing molecules formed by living things are often called organic molecules
a saturated fatty acid is one in which all available bonds of its hydrocarbon chain are filled
T/F chaperone proteins assist in the proper folding of other proteins so they can have the correct functional shape. True
What term is often used to describe certain arrangements of atoms attached to the carbon core of many organic molecules functional group
all proteins have which four elements carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen
which of these is not a lipid fat steroid cholesterol polysaccharide polysaccharide
a very large molecule composed of subunits of sugar, a nitrogen base, and a phosphate bond is a nucleic acid
any large molecule made up of many identical small molecules is called a polymer
which term means "water loving" and applies to the phospholipid head hydrophilic
DNA and RN are important because information molecules
If one side of a DNA molecule is CTAGGCTG the other side would be GATCCGAC
prostaglandins and steroids share which of the following characteristics both are found in the cell membrane both have a ring structure in their molecule both have a saturated fat in their structure none of the above both have a ring structure in their molecule
the term glycoprotein a combination of two word tells you that the compound is made of ____, with _____ being the dominant component carbohydrate and protein; protein
the amino group in an amino acid is NH3+
peptide bonds join together molecules of amino acids
which of the following is not one of the major groups of organic substances in the human body proteins salts lipids nucleic acid salts
when two molecules of glucose are joined, they form which disaccharide? maltose
unsaturated fats will kink or bend because of the double bonds between the carbon atoms
which lipid acts as a tissue hormone prostaglandin
sometimes referred to as animal starch _____ is the main polysaccharide in the body glycogen
the alpha helix is an example of which level of protein structure secondary
which of the following is not true of RNA it contains ribose sugar it contains adenine it is composed of smaller molecules called nucleotides all of the above are true all of the above are true
humans can synthesize 13 of 21 basic amino acids' the remaining 8 which must be included in the diet are called essential amino acids
a structural lipid found in the cell membrane is a triglyceride phospholipid steroid both B and C Both B and C
which level of protein structure refers to the number, kind, and sequence of amino acids primary
which of the following is not true of carbohydrates? they include substances commonly called sugars they are the body's primary source of energy they are a part of both DNA and RNA all of the above are true all of the above are true
what is the most important factor in determining the physical and chemical properties of fatty acids degree of saturation
the type of lipoprotein associated with "bad" cholesterol and the production of atherosclerotic changes in blood vessels is LDL
amino acids frequently become joined by peptide bonds
all of the following substances are organic except lipids electrolytes carbohydrates proteins electrolytes
which energy-releasing or energy-transferring molecule does not contain a nucleotide creatine phosphate
the types of lipids found that form hormones such as cortisone, estrogen, and testosterone are steroids
the element that is present in all proteins but not in carbohydrates is nitrogen
which lipid is part of vitamin D steroids
DNA is a double-helix strand of nucleotides
which of the following is not true of both triglycerides and phospholipids the both contain glycerol they both contain fatty acids they both contain a hydrophobic and hydrophilic end all of the above are true they both contain a hydrophobic and hydrophilic end
the formation of sucrose involves the removal of a molecule of water. This is called dehydration synthesis
a _____ is a functional group that is temporarily unattached and is highly reactive because of unpaired electrons free radical
the basic building blocks of fats are fatty acids and glycerol
Created by: HessA813