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Heredity & Genetics

genetics The study of heredity.
heredity The passing of genetic traits from parent(s) to offsring or one generation to the next.
DNA The genetic information found in cells that is passed from parent(s) to offspring made up of two twisted strands.
sexual reproduction Reproduction that allows genetic information to be passed from parents to offspring and requires the sex cells.
sperm male sex cell that has 23 chromosomes.
egg female sex cell that has 23 chromosomes.
fertilization The process in which the sperm joins the egg to form a zygote.
chromosome Structure found in the nucleus of a cell that contains genetic information (DNA).
genes A part/segment of DNA
allele Alternate form of a gene or one gene from the pair of genes.
genotype The set of genes carried by the organism.
phenotype The physical expression of the genes.
inherited traits Characterisitics that are passed from parent to offspring.
accuried traits Characteristics an organism develop through interaction in their environment.
dominant trait The version of a trait that will be expressed regardless of the other allele(s) that is(are) present.
recessive trait The version of a trait that will only be expressed if two recessive alleles are present.
homozygous Means the offspring has two copies of the dominant allele (trait) or two copies of the recessive allele (traits).
heterozygous Means the offspring has one copy of the dominant allele (trait) and one copy of the recessive allele (trait).
punnett square Used to predict the ratio, percentage, and traits of the possible genes that offspring will have pased on parents genotypes.
monohybrid cross Type of punnett square that shows the inheritance of a single characteritics.
dihybrid cross Type of punnet square that shows the inheritance of two characteristics.
hybrid Also related to heterozygous and has one dominant allele and one recessive allele.
purebred Also related to homozygous and has two dominant alleles or two recessive alleles.
incomplete dominance Condition in which the dominant allele does not completely mask "hide" the recessive allele.
codominance Condition in which there is more than one dominant allele.
mutation Altered "change' in the genes of an organism that can harm, benefit, or have no effect on an organism that occur radomly or by environmental exposures.
somatic cells Human body cells that does not include the sex cells.
gametes Human body sex cells which include sperm and egg.
genetic engineering The manipulation of an organism's genes or genome.
genome A list of instructions on how to make a human or any other organism.
selective breeding Type of genetic engineering is which humans breed or reinforce desired traits into a particular organism.
modified genes Genes that are added or manipulated directly into the genome of an organism to make it grow faster and bigger or become more resistant to diseases.
human genome project Internationa research effort to determine the sequence of the human genome.
Created by: Westview7G