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TEAS Science Study

Human A+P/Life + Physical Sciences/Scientific Reasoning

cell basic unit of all living things -filled with cytoplasm and consists of nucleic acids and a cell membrane -organelles /groups of complex molecules that help a cell survive such as mitochondria and chloroplasts
membrane all cells have which is comparable to a semi-permeable plastic bag -composed of phospholipids -transport holes (protein) to help molecules and ions move in and out the cell
DNA and RNA all cells have and can synthesize proteins
sexual reproduction production of a new living thing from 2 individuals of different sexes
asexual reproduction reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism
Nuclear parts of a cell -nucleus/defining structure of eukaryotic cells (ALL) -chromosome/condensed threadlike rods of DNA -chromatin -nucleolus/no membrane and involves protein synthesis -nuclear envelope/inner and outer membranes made of lips -nuclear pores -nucleoplasm
cell membrane -isolates the cell from its external environment -consist of a phospholipid bilayer -hydrophilic heads facing external -hydrophobic facing each other -cholesterol adds stiffness and flexibility -proteins
ribosomes involved in synthesizing protein from amino acids -some are mobile and some are embedded in the rough ER
Golgi complex synthesizing materials such as proteins that are transported out of the cell
vacuoles sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal -1 lg vacuole in plant cells -animal cells have small ones
vesicle is a small organelle within a cell -moves materials
cytoskeleton consists of microtubules -help shape and support the cell
microtubules part of the cytoskeleton and help support the cell -made of protein
cytosol liquid material in the cell
cytoplasm found within the plasma membrane, but not within the nucleus
ER rough-ribosomes on the surface smooth-does not have ribosomes
mitochondrion some cells have 1 and others have thousands -generates ATP -involves cell growth and death -contains own DNA
animal cell structure -centrosome/involved in mitosis -centrioles/consists of 9 groups of microtubules -lysosome/digest proteins, lipids, and carb -transports undigested substances to the cell membrane to be removed -cilia -flagella
cell cycle process by which a cell reproduces, which involves cell growth, the duplication of genetic material, and cell division
cell differentiation process that helps to determine the cell type for each cell a less specialized cell becomes more specialized
zygote genes of each cell among a group of cells
gastrulation early phase in the embryonic development of most animals cells are organized into 3 primary germ layers -ectoderm -mesoderm -endoderm
mitosis interphase-prepares for division prophase-centrioles move to opposite sides of the cell metaphase-spindle moves to the middle anaphase-pairs split to daughter chromosomes telophase-nuclear membrane reform cytokinesis-physical splitting
meiosis prophase metaphase anaphase telophase cytokinesis -goes into a second cell division to result in 4 daughter cells with different sets of chromosomes called haploid
tissues groups of cells that work together to perform a specific function -muscle tissue -nerve tissue -epithelial tissue -connective tissue
epithelial tissue cells are joined tightly together example is skin tissue
connective tissue cushions and provides structural support for body parts
blood transports oxygen to cells and remove wastes
bone hard tissue that supports and protects softer tissues and organs
muscle helps support and move the body
nervous located in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves-control responses to changes in external and internal environment
organs groups of tissues that work together to perform specific functions 11 major organ system
Respiratory system main function is to supply the body with oxygen and rid the body of CO2 -filters air -responsible for speech -vital in cough production -fuctions in the sense of smell -helps maintain homeostasis
alveoli the exchange of gases for the respiratory system
larynx voicebox
trachea windpipe
cilia trap microbes and debris and sweep them back to the mouth
respiratory muscles diaphragm and intercostal muscles
breathing process inspiration-diaphragm contracts and move down/increasing size expiration-diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax/size decrease
circulatory system responsible for the internal transport of substance to and from the cells -blood/ helps maintain a healthy internal environment -blood vessels -heart can be an open or closed system(animals)
supplemental system lymph vascular system cleans up excess fluids and proteins and returns them to the circulatory system
adult blood has 5 quarts of blood consisting of red or white blood cells, platelets and plasma-consists of half the blood volume
RBC's for in the bone marrow and can live for about 2 months
WBC's defend the body against infection and remove various waste
atrial contraction fills ventricles
ventricular contraction empties them, forcing circulation
cardiac cycle the sequence of atrial contraction and ventricular contraction -diastole and systole phases
Diastole phase blood flows through the superior and inferior vena cava the heart is relaxed and atrium-->tricuspid valve-->right ventricle
SA node cardiac pacemaker and sends electrical signals which are carried by the Purkinje fibers to the rest of the atrium stimulating and filling the right ventricle and initiate first systole phase and tricuspid closes
systole phase pulmonary semilunar valve opens blood pumped out the pulmonary arteries-->lungs fills up left atrium as part of second diastole phase
second diastole phase SA node triggers the Mitral valve-->fill left ventricle
second systole phase mitral valve closes and the aortic semilunar valve opens left ventricle contracts -->blood to the rest of the body
Types of circulation coronary circulation pulmonary circulation systemic circulation portal circulation renal circulation
coronary circulation the flow of blood to the heart tissue
pulmonary circulation the flow of blood between the heart and lungc
systemic circulation the flow of blood to the entire body with the exception of the coronary and pulmonary circulation
portal circulation the flow of blood to the digestive system to the liver and then to the heart
renal circulation flow of blood between the heart and the kidneys
BP is the fluid pressure generated by the cardiac cycle
arterial BP functions by transporting oxygen-poor blood into the lungs and oxygen rich blood to the body tissues
arteries branch into smaller arterioles
arterioles where adjustments are made in blood delivery to specific areas
capillary beds diffusion sites for exchanges between blood and interstitial fluid merge into venues--> which merge larger called veins
veins transport blood from body tissues back to the heart
Lymphatic system main function to return excess tissue fluid to the bloodstream
lymph vascular sytem lymph capillaries lymph vessels lymph ducts Major functions are return of excess fluid to the blood, return of protein from the capillaries, transport of facts from the digestive tract, and disposal of debris and cellular waste
lymph nodes contains lymphocytes and plasma cells
spleen filters blood stores of RBCs and macrophages made up of lymphoid tissue -filter unwanted materials from blood
thymus secretes hormones and is the major site of lymphocyte production
Digestive systems function movement-mixes + passes nutrients through the system/elim wastes secretion-enzymes, hormones, subs secreted digestion-chem breakdown of nutrients into smaller units --> the internal environ absorption-passage of nutrients --> plasma mem in the blood
saliva mixing with nutrients when chewing -contains enzymes that initiate breakdown of starch in digestion
salivary glands stimulated and secrete saliva
digestion mouth-->pharynx-->esophagus-->stomach
stomach functions -mixing and storing food -dissolving and degrading food via secretions -controlling passage of food into the small intestine
peristalsis help to move nutrients along
liver largest solid organ of the body -four lobes/right, left, quadrate, and caudate lobes -processes all of the blood that passes through the digestive system -fumctional units -lobules
hepatic portal vein nutrient rich blood supplied to the liver via this port
hepatic artery supplies oxygen rich blood
liver functions -bile -certain blood plasma -cholesterol -storage of excess glucose -regulation of amino acids -processing of hemogloblin -conversion of ammonia to urea -purification of blood -regulation of blood clotting -controlling infections
small intestine most nutrients are absorbed here in the digestive process -lined with villi
bile secretion of the liver and is useful in breaking down fats
chime semi liquid mass of partially digested food
large intestine also called the colon, concentrates, mixes, and stores waste material -over a meter long
sphincter at the end of the anus is stimulated to facilitate the expelling of waste matter
Pancreas -6 to 10 inches long -assists in the digestion of foods by secreting enzymes that help breakdown food, especially fats and proteins
Nervous system senses, interprets, and issues commands as a response in conditions in the body's environment
action potential messages are sent across the plasma membrane of neurons
chemical synapse a substance released that stimulates or inhibits the action of the adjoining cell
sensory neurons transmits signals to the CNS
motor neurons transmits signals from the CNS to the rest of the body
interneurons transmits signals between neurons
dendrites receives impulses from sensory receptors and transmit them toward the body
axon insulated by oligodendrocytes and the myelin sheath with gaps known as the nodes of Ranvier
CNS spinal cord and brain
midbrain integrates sensory signals and orchestrates responses to these signals
frontal lobe responsible for short term and working memory
parietal lobe responsible for sensory input as well spatial positioning of the body
occipital lobe visual input, processing, and output;s specifically nerves from the eyes
temporal lobe responsible for all auditory input, processing and output
cerebellum plays a role in processing and storing implicit memories
ANS maintains homeostasis within the body
sympathetic nervous system controls the body's reaction to extreme, stressful, and emergency situations -increase HR -increase dilation -slows digestion
parasympathetic nervous system sleep and digest -decreases HR -constricts pupils -returns digestion process
SNS controls the 5 senses and the voluntary movement of skeletal muscle
efferent nerves bring signals from the CNS to the sensory organs and muscles
afferent nerves bring signals from the sensory organs and muscles to the CNS
Muscular system consists of 3 muscle tissues, skeletal, cardiac, and smooth properties of excitability-electric gradient which can reversed when stimulated contraction-contract or shorten elongate-capacity to elongate or relax
skeletal muscles voluntary muscles composed of muscle fibers striated
smooth muscle involuntary muscles found in the walls of organs visceral tissue is non-striated
cardiac muscle involuntary muscle that is found only in the heart
skeletal muscle contraction contains bundles of myofibrils and composed of multiple repeating contractile-sacromeres
Myofibrils thick filament-contain protein myosin thin filament-contain protein actin
action potential reaches a muscle fiber and calcium ions are released ATP is released from glucose to provide energy
male reproductive system produce, maintain and transfer sperm and semen into the female reproductive system penis contains the urethra scrotum is the sac skin and smooth muscle epididymis-stores the sperm prostate gland-secretes milky white fluid FSH , LH, and Testosterone
female reproductive system to produce ova, transfer to the fallopian tubes, receive sperm, and to provide a protective, nourishing environment for the developing embryo labia major and minor Bartholin's gland-secrete lubricating fluid clitoris secretes estrogen and progesterone
Integumentary system functions to protect from pathogens , secrete, and communicate skin manufacturers vit D
layers of the skin 1-epidermis-superficial layer/ contains entirely of epithelial cells stratum basale-deepest portion of the epidermis 2-dermis-connective tissue/contains blood vessels, sensory receptors, hair follicles 3-subcutaneous layer/hypodermis-connective tissue
skin's involvement in Temp homeostasis body to maintain homeostasis hypothalamus-control center effectors-sweat glands, blood vessels and muscles
sebaceous glands holocrine glands and secretes sebum
exocrine glands secrete substances into ducts
sweat glands are not connected to hair follicles activated by elevated body temp
apocrine glands secrete oily solution when a person experiences stress or anxiety
Created by: vtlove116