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TEAS Reading Study

key ideas + details/craft + structure/Integration of knowledge + ideas

Summarize similar to an outline should have a main idea and supporting details
main idea summary should define this
supporting details most important to back up the main idea of the summary
paraphase method used to aid in comprehension rephrasing what the author has written into your own words
logical conclusion making an inference, combining information given by text with what you already know -make brief notes of all points -does the author raise any pertinent questions -must be supported directly by the text
conclusions -sometimes stated directly in the passage -may give a counterargument -read entire passage
Inferences piece of information that is implied but not written outright EX: After the final out of the inning, the fans were filled with joy and rushed the field. -you can see that they re watching baseball and their team won
contextual clues answer can be true but not correct when asked for the implied meaning of the statement -look for an answer choice that has a similar phrase to the statement in question
Implications are things that an author does not state directly, but readers can assume tased on what the author does say EX: I stepped outside and opened my umbrella. -you can say that it was raining
Topics is the subject of the text, what it is all about can be stated at the very beginning or the end
main ideas most important point being made by the author can be stated at the very beginning or the end
supporting deatils provide evidence and backing for the main point reinforce some larger point commonly found in informative and persuasive texts -terms like for example, for instance
Topic and summary sentence clear and not contain any jargon -usually at the beginning of each sentence as a means to prepare the reader for what is to come
Technical passages follow a set of directions read through the whole passage -usually a recipe is used in this way
memo written communication -heading at the top -body under heading written in formal style -usually written for members in an organization
posted announcement lost pets yard sales services
classified advertisement used to sell or buy goods attract business make romantic connections -a way of making a brief pitch
Legend or keys of a map map various landmarks
Events in a sequence order in which things happen -used words like first, then, next, and last -orderly from first to last
fact subjected to analysis and can be either proved or disproved
opinion author's personal thoughts or feelings which may be alterable by research or evidence -indicated by words like believe, think or feel
biases ignoring reasonable counterarguments or distort opposing viewpoints -evident whether the author is unfair or inaccurate -intentional or unintentional
sterotype like a bias, the author will correct in spite of his or her bias, not because of the bias -applied specifically to a group or place
Problem-solution text structure problem followed by a solution -problem is often explained before the solution is offered -could have multiple solutions to a problem -be careful of author's agenda
Descriptive text describing events, ides, or people to the reader -focuses on particular subject and attempts to depict the subject in a way that will be clear to readers -uses many adjectives and adverbs -informative
Comparison and contrast the ways 2 things are alike and in ways 2 things are different -most common form of nonfiction -comparison terms such as both, same, like and too -contrast terms such as but, however, on the other hand and instead
Cause and effect cause is an act or event that makes something happen -cause terms such as since, because, due to effect is the thing that happens as a result of the cause -effect terms such as consequently and therefore
Narrative passage is a story that can be fiction or nonfiction contain a plot, characters and figurative language (metaphor)
Expository passage aims to inform and enlighten readers -nonfiction and usually centers around a simple, easily defined topic -uses words like first, next, for example, and therefore -concerned with clarity and comprehensibility
Technical passage written to describe a complex object or process -common in medical and technological fields -explained simply and clearly -amount of jargon depends on technical passages
persuasive passage meant to change the mind of readers and lead them into agreeement with the author -appeal to reader's emotions and make claims based on opinion -display significant bias
word meaning from context defining a word based on the words around it and the way it used in a sentence -can also be defined by what they are not
Figurative language language devices that author uses to convey their meaning in a descriptive way -language that goes beyond the literal meaning of a word or phrase -examples are descriptive language and exaggeration -also similes and metaphors
Metaphor type of figurative language in which the writer equates one thing with a different thing EX: The bird was an arrow arcing through the sky.
Simile figurative expression that is similar to a metaphor, yet the expression requires the use of the distancing words like or as -description is not the same thing as the thing being described
Personification description of a nonhuman thing as if the item were human
Denotative meaning of words the literal meaning of a word
Connotative meaning of words goes beyond the meaning of the word and includes emotional reaction that a word may invoke
Purpose evident often in organization of the text -main idea at the beginning and used to inform
Persuasive writing author is attempting to change the mind of the readers or convince him or her of something that he or she didn't previously -uses emotional language -give unfair explanation of opposing positions
Informative texts written to educate and enlighten readers -usually nonfiction and rarely tell a story -has a thesis statement or 1 or 2 sentences -emphasis on clarity and percision -contains facts and figures
Entertaining texts fiction or nonfiction -use of colorful language that engages the imagination and the emotions -usually written to persuade and inform
primary sources documentary evidence closest to the subject being studied
secondary sources a review on the subject and the creditability in other books or articles
internet sources poor source but the best sources are those affiliated with established institutions
predictions guess about what will happen next
foreshadowing uses hints in a narrative to let the audience anticipate future events In the plot
drawing conclusions may be drawn, look for critical "hedge" phrases such as likely, may, can and will often
themes in print or other services is an issue, an idea, or a question raised by text -could have more than 1 -read with a question in mind
Similar themes across cultures vastly different cultures have similarity -genres and cultures address similarity too
evaluating an argument take a stand on a debatable issue, seek to explore all sides of the issue, and find the best possible solution -should not be combative or abusive reveal current understanding of the question at hand and suggest a solution
Text evidence refers to information that supports the main point or minor points and can help lead the reader to a conclusion -should have supporting details that provide evidence based on the claim -facts, examples and illustrations
credibility believable when the author is knowledgeable and objective, or unbiased -author's motivation
Appeal to motion an attempt to persuade or to distract the reader from the weaknesses of the argument -inspire pity -bandwagon approach -name-calling -celebrity testimonial
Counterarguments give both sides to the argument and builds trust with the readers -appeal to have an open mind
Journal articles contains a source length authority date audience usefulness
Line graph measuring general trends over time
bar graph is one of the most common visual representations of information used to illustrate sets of numerical data
pie chart circle graph, useful for depicting how a single unit or category is divided proportional in size to a part of whole
information specialist library media specialist bring their skills for finding and evaluating info in a variety of formats as resources for learners and educators
spatial organization let the user see the information
chronological organization most common presentation of information produces a sequence
logical organization presenting material in a logical pattern that makes intuitive sense illustrations, definitions, comparing and contrasting, cause and effect, problem and soution
synthesis of research generating questions about what the data you have collected summarize what you have collected
Created by: vtlove116
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