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1st 9-Weeks

1st 9-Weeks DA 6th Grade Advanced Science Review 2020 - 21

TermDefinition
ATOM Smallest particle of an element, made of electrons, protons, & neutrons.
ELEMENT Pure substance composed of the same type of atom throughout.
COMPOUND Substance made of 2 or more elements that are chemically combined in fixed amounts.
SUBSTANCE Any form of matter that is uniform throughout & has consistent properties.
PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS Table in which all the known elements are arranged by properties & are represented by 1 or 2 letters, referred to as chemical symbols.
MATTER Anything that has mass & takes up space.
PROPERTIES Physical & chemical characteristics of matter used to describe or identify a substance.
VOLUME Measure of the space that matter occupies.
MASS Measure of how much matter is present in a substance.
MIXTURE Combination of 2 or more substances which do not chemically combine.
UNIFORM COMPOSITION Made of the same evenly distributed substance or combination of substances throughout; uni = one
CHEMICAL CHANGE Change that alters the identity of a substance resulting in a new substance or substances with different properties.
PHYSICAL CHANGE Change to a substance that occurs without forming a new substance, such as a change in size or state of matter.
CHEMICAL PROPERTY Characteristic that can only be observed or measured when atoms of matter rearrange during a chemical change.
PHYSICAL PROPERTY Characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the substance; for example, color, melting point, or conductivity.
STATES OF MATTER Distinct forms of matter known in everyday experience: solid, liquid, & gas; also referred to as phases.
PRODUCTION OF HEAT OR LIGHT Evidence of release of energy during a chemical change.
PRODUCTION OF PRECIPITATE Evidence of a new substance formed from a chemical change, resulting in solid particles that form or separate out of a liquid.
PRODUCTION OF GAS Evidence of a new substance formed from a chemical change.
COLOR CHANGE Change in the way something reflects light, can indicate a chemical change.
TEMPERATURE CHANGE Increase or decrease of heat energy in a substance may be evidence of a new substance formed during a chemical change.
CITY - GIRLS - LEAVE - THEIR - PHONES - ON Mnemonic device to help remember the 6 evidences of a CHEMICAL change: C = COLOR change G = GAS formation (not phase change) L = LIGHT produced T = TEMP. change (not phase change) P = PRECIPITATE formation O = ODOR produced
METALS Most elements are metals; they're typically solid, shiny, malleable, & good conductors of heat & electricity.
NON-METALS Elements that are typically not shiny, not malleable, & poor conductors of heat & electricity; usually gases or brittle solids.
METALLOIDS Elements that have properties of both metals & nonmetals; sometimes referred to as semiconductors.
LUSTER The way the surface of a mineral reflects light; either metallic or non-metallic such as silky, dull, glassy, or resinous.
CONDUCTIVITY The ability of a substance to transfer heat or electrical energy.
MALLEABILITY The ability of something to be reshaped without breaking.
BRITTLE A tendency to break rather than flex or bend.
INSULATOR A material that does NOT conduct heat or electrical current.
CONDUCTOR A substance that readily transfers heat or electrical energy.
SEMI-CONDUCTOR A substance that shows the property of electrical conductivity between that of a conductor & that of an insulator; foundation of modern electronics.
CLASSIFY Sort or put into groups based on similar & dissimilar physical, chemical, or biological characteristics.
GRAM, g Basic metric unit of mass.
CUBIC CENTIMETER, cm³ Metric unit of volume equal to a milliliter.
MILLILITER, mL Metric unit of volume.
VOLUME BY DISPLACEMENT Procedure that measures volume of irregular objects by placing in a known amount of water & measuring the water displaced.
DENSITY Mass of a substance divided by its volume.
RELATIVE DENSITY Comparison of the density of 1 material as it relates to another; frequently compared to the density of water (sinking or floating).
DENSITY FORMULA Density equals Mass divided by Volume; Density=mass/volume; D=m/V
CLASSIFY/CLASSIFICATION Sort or put into groups based on similar and dissimilar physical, chemical, or biological characteristics.
DISPLACEMENT Procedure used to measure volume of a solid object by placing it in a known amount of liquid.
MINERAL Naturally formed, inorganic solid that has a specific chemical formula & repeating 3-dimensional structure.
STREAK Color of a mineral in powdered form.`
HARDNESS Measure of scratch resistance of various minerals; when the ability of harder minerals to scratch softer minerals is used for identification.
CONDUCTIVITY Ability of a substance to transfer heat or electrical energy.
MAGNETIC ATTRACTION Magnetic force exerted by oppositely charged particles, tending to draw or hold the particles together.
INORGANIC Matter that does not contain carbon; abiotic.
MINERAL CRYSTAL Geometric shape of a mineral that reflects its internal crystalline arrangement of atoms.
MOHS HARDNESS SCALE Set of 10 minerals used as a standard of hardness against which an unknown mineral's hardness is compared.
ENERGY Ability of a system to do work; required for changes to happen within a system.
POTENTIAL ENERGY Energy stored in a system or an object.
KINETIC ENERGY Energy of motion.
ENERGY TRANSFORMATION Change of energy from one form to another.
SYSTEM Group of interacting or interdependent elements forming a complex whole.
TOTAL ENERGY All energy, potential and kinetic, within a specific system.
JOULE Unit used to measure energy.
RESTING POSITION Refers to an object remaining in the same spot relative to another object.
MOTION Change in an object's position with respect to time and in comparison with the position of other objects used as reference points.
DIRECTION Straight path that an object can move along.
SPEED Rate of change of position (or distance traveled) with respect to time; units measured are expressed as distance per time (ex: meters per second).
LINE GRAPH Graph in which the data are represented by points connected by one or more lines.
DISTANCE-TIME GRAPH Type of graph that illustrates changes in motion; time is graphed on the x-axis and distance is graphed on the y-axis.
X-AXIS Horizontal line with labels on a coordinate grid; time is represented in the x-axis.
Y-AXIS Vertical line with labels on a coordinate grid; distance is represented on the y-axis.
AVERAGE SPEED Calculated by dividing total distance an object travels by total time it took the object to travel the distance (s = d/t); speed describes the rate of movement.
FORCE Push or pull that can change the motion of an object, measured with a spring scale in Newton (N) units.
BALANCED FORCES Separate forces on an object that, when combined, do not change the movement of the object.
UNBALANCED FORCES Forces on an object that cause change in the motion of the object.
POTENTIAL ENERGY Energy that is stored in a system or object.
KINETIC ENERGY Energy of motion.
SIMPLE MACHINE Device that makes work easier, often by reducing the amount of force needed to move an object.
INCLINED PLANE Simple machine; ramp or slope that reduces the force needed to move objects up & down heights.
LOAD Object to be moved by using a machine.
FORCE Push or pull that can change the motion of an object, measured with a spring scale in Newton (N) units.
SPRING SCALE Tool that measures a pulling force by the tension on a spring.
NEWTON Unit of force; named for Physicist Sir Isaac Newton.
THERMAL ENERGY Total kinetic (motion) energy of tiny particles that make up matter; the faster particles move, the warmer matter becomes.
CONDUCTION Transfer of thermal energy that occurs in solids, liquids, & gases when 2 substances of different temperatures touch.
CONVECTION Heat transfer caused by the rising of hotter, less dense fluids & the falling of cooler, more dense fluids.
RADIATION Transfer of energy by the movement of electromagnetic waves or subatomic particles.
HEAT Energy transferred between 2 objects of different temperatures; energy will continue to move in a predictable pattern from warmer site to cooler site until all sites have reached the same temperature.
CONVECTION CURRENT Circular movement of fluids caused by the rising of hotter, less dense fluid & the falling of cooler, more dense fluid.
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Energy can neither be created nor destroyed; energy just changes form.
TEMPERATURE Average kinetic energy of all particles in a material; measured by a thermometer in degrees (usually Celsius or Fahrenheit).
ENERGY TRANSFORMATION Change of energy from one form to another.
CONDUCTOR Substance that readily transfers heat or electrical energy.
INSULATOR Material that does not conduct heat or electrical current.
KINETIC ENERGY Energy of motion.
CHEMICAL ENERGY Energy stored in chemical bonds & released through chemical reactions.
ELECTRICAL ENERGY Form of energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor.
LIGHT ENERGY Form of energy that exhibits wave-like behavior as it travels through space; part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
MECHANICAL ENERGY Sum of the potential & kinetic energy of an object.
THERMAL ENERGY Total kinetic (moving) energy of the tiny particles that make up matter; the faster the particles move, the warmer the matter becomes.
SOUND ENERGY Form of energy made by vibrations; requires a medium (like air, water, or solids) in order to travel; waves travel slower than light waves.
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Energy can neither be created nor destroyed; energy just changes form.
PHASE CHANGE Type of PHYSICAL change in which: 1. Solids can MELT into Liquids 2. Liquids can EVAPORATE into Gases 3. Gases can CONDENSE into Liquids 4. Liquids can FREEZE into Solids The produced substance is the SAME as the original substance.
PRECIPITATE Solid produced when 2 different liquids are combined; the result of a CHEMICAL change.
Created by: trauberk
 

 



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