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2nd 9-Weeks

2nd 9-Weeks DA 6th Grade Advanced Science Review 2019 - 20

TermDefinition
INNER CORE Sphere of solid nickel & iron at the center of Earth; surrounded by liquid outer core.
OUTER CORE Outer layer of Earth’s core; surrounds inner core; made of liquid nickel & iron.
MANTLE Solid layer of Earth between the crust & core; made of dense silicates.
CRUST Thin, solid outermost layer of Earth; made of less dense silicates; either continental (landmasses) or oceanic (ocean floors).
LITHOSPHERE Cool, rigid, outermost layer of Earth that consists of the crust & uppermost part of the mantle; broken into pieces or segments called plates; litho = rock.
ASTHENOSPHERE Solid layer with plasticity in upper mantle located just below the lithosphere; lithospheric plates “float” & move on this layer; astheno = weak.
PLASTICITY Characteristic of the material in the asthenosphere; existing in solid state yet having the ability to flow without being a liquid.
EARTH'S LAYERS Divisions of the composition of Earth determined by either chemical composition or by physical state of matter.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Types, quantities, & arrangements of elements that make up a substance.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Measurable characteristics that describe physical state of something, including mass, magnetism, temperature, density, shape, volume, & conductivity.
TEMPERATURE Measure of the amount of heat energy.
STATES OF MATTER Distinct forms of matter known in everyday experience: solid, liquid, and gas; also referred to as phases of matter.
PRESSURE Force exerted on matter through contact with other matter; affects melting & boiling points.
DENSITY Amount of matter in a given space or volume; relationship between mass & volume; less dense matter will form layers above more dense matter.
EARTH'S EVOLUTION Process that formed & changed planet Earth from its beginning to the present.
MINERAL COMPOSITION Unique combination of solid elements & compounds that make up a mineral.
ROCK CYCLE Earth's rocks change from 1 type into another over time due to various Earth processes; changes occur in mineral compositions & physical structures.
IGNEOUS ROCK Formed when lava or magma cools & solidifies; lava (above ground) cools quickly & forms rocks with small crystals, while magma (below ground) cools slowly & forms rocks with larger crystals.
LAVA Molten rock or magma that has reached Earth's surface by volcanic action; characterized by small crystals due to rapid cooling on Earth's surface.
MAGMA Melted or molten rock material beneath Earth's surface; cools slowly to form rocks with larger crystals.
METAMORPHIC ROCK Formed deep underground where heat & pressure cause existing rocks to be changed in both mineral composition & structural characteristics.
HEAT and PRESSURE Changing variables due to the weight of overlying rocks, causing changes to rock characteristics & mineral composition, thus forming metamorphic rocks.
SEDIMENTARY ROCK Forms when particles of other rocks are deposited in layers & are compacted (crushed together), & cemented (binding of sediments).
COMPACTION Occurs when rock particles or sediments are pressed together or packed down by gravity & the pressure of overlying rock layers.
CEMENTATION Occurs when compacted sediments stick together & turn into rock.
TECTONIC PLATES Huge pieces of lithosphere that slowly move on the asthenosphere & consist of the crust & the rigid, uppermost part of the mantle.
NORTH AMERICAN PLATE Tectonic plate division of the lithosphere that includes the continental crust of Greenland, N. America, Siberia, & the surrounding oceanic crust.
EURASIAN PLATE Tectonic plate division of the lithosphere, including most of the landmasses of Europe & Asia.
AFRICAN PLATE Tectonic plate division of the lithosphere that includes the continental crust of Africa & the surrounding oceanic crust.
SOUTH AMERICAN PLATE Tectonic plate division of the lithosphere that includes the continental crust of S. America & the oceanic crust extending to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
INDO-AUSTRALIAN PLATE Tectonic plate division of the lithosphere that includes the continental crust of India & Australia & the surrounding oceanic crust.
PACIFIC PLATE Tectonic plate division of the lithosphere that's composed entirely of oceanic crust & lies beneath the Pacific Ocean.
ANTARCTIC PLATE Tectonic plate division of the lithosphere that includes the continental crust of Antarctica & the surrounding oceanic crust.
DENSITY OF PLATES Amount of matter in a given space or volume; oceanic crust is thinner, but denser than continental crust.
CRUSTAL ROCK MATERIAL Crust can be either oceanic, which is thin & dense, or continental, which is thick & less dense.
PLATE BOUNDARY Place where 2 different plates have contact.
CONVERGENT BOUNDARY Occurs when 2 tectonic plates move toward each other & collide; "CON-" = WITH.
SUBDUCTION Process in which a denser plate is pushed downward beneath a less dense plate when plates converge; occurs at continental to oceanic boundaries & oceanic to oceanic boundaries.
VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS Events in which molten rock spews out from the mantle to Earth's surface as ash, lava, & gases; major geological events that occur when a dense plate subducts below a less dense plate.
MOUNTAIN BUILDING Major geological event that occurs when continental plates of equal density converge, resulting in mountain chains.
DIVERGENT BOUNDARY Occurs when 2 tectonic plates move away from each other; "DI-" = TWO.
SPREADING RIDGES Ridges formed from new crustal material at diverging oceanic plate boundaries.
OCEAN BASIN Area of oceanic crust covered by seawater & surrounded by areas of continental crust.
TRANSFORM BOUNDARY Occurs when 2 tectonic plates slide past each other.
EARTHQUAKES Major geological events that occur when plates shift suddenly & release stored energy; frequent occurrences along all types of plate boundaries.
CELESTIAL OBJECTS Objects such as planets, moons, & stars that are located in the sky or in space.
SYSTEM Group of interacting or interdependent parts forming a complex whole; for example, all the factors or variables in an environment, or all the planetary bodies revolving around a star.
SOLAR SYSTEM Sun together with the group of planets & other celestial bodies that are held by its gravitational attraction & revolve around it.
GRAVITY Force that causes objects with mass to attract one another.
ORBITAL PATH Gravitationally curved path of an object around a point in space.
SUN Luminous celestial body around which Earth & other planets revolve & from which they receive heat & light.
STAR Ball of gas in space that produces its own light & heat.
PLANET Any of the large celestial bodies that revolve around the Sun in the solar system.
INNER PLANET Any of the rocky, terrestrial planets of Mercury, Venus, Earth, & Mars, whose orbits are inside the asteroid belt.
ROCKY Made of rocks.
TERRESTRIAL Earth-like; "Terra-" = Earth
OUTER PLANET Any of the planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, & Neptune, whose orbits lie beyond the asteroid belt.
ASTEROIDS Large & small rocks or metallic masses orbiting the Sun; made up of materials similar to those that formed the planets.
ASTEROID BELT Region between the inner & outer planets where most asteroids orbit around the Sun.
METEOROID Natural chunk of rock or dust existing outside of Earth’s atmosphere.
METEOR Small object that enters Earth’s atmosphere from space & burns due to friction, thus emitting light.
METEORITES Remains of meteoroids that strike the surface of Earth or the Moon.
SATELLITE Something that orbits around another object; for example, a moon orbiting a planet or a human-made object orbiting Earth.
MOON Celestial body that revolves around a planet.
COMET Celestial body of ice, dust, & rock with an elongated & elliptical orbit.
COMA Glowing, heated dust & vaporized gas that surrounds the icy comet nucleus as it travels near the Sun; solar winds cause heated gases to stream out of the nucleus & form a tail that points away from the Sun.
GRAVITY Force that causes objects with mass to attract 1 another.
GRAVITATIONAL ATTRACTION Force that pulls 2 objects towards each other; greater an object's' mass, the greater the attraction; further apart the objects, the weaker the attraction.
NEWTON'S LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION Law that says every object in the universe attracts every other object, & force is affected by mass & distance: greater the mass of an object, the greater the attraction; farther apart the objects, the weaker the attraction.
MASS Amount of matter in an object; a body or object.
SIR ISAAC NEWTON English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, theologian, & author who's widely recognized as 1 of the most influential scientists of all time, & a key figure in the scientific revolution; considered the founder of the concept for GRAVITY.
SPACE EXPLORATION Investigation of physical conditions in space & on stars, planets, & other celestial bodies through use of satellites, space probes, or spacecraft w/human crews.
ROCKET Engine that provides thrust directly through the burning of its fuel without requiring intake of air.
SPACECRAFT Vehicle or device designed for travel or operation outside Earth's atmosphere.
SPACE SHUTTLE Reusable spacecraft designed to transport people & cargo between Earth & space.
SPACE PROBE Unmanned spacecraft designed to explore solar system & transmit data back to Earth.
ROVER Vehicle for exploring surface of an extraterrestrial body (like the Moon & Mars).
SATELLITE Object that orbits around another object, like a moon orbiting a planet or a human-made object orbiting Earth.
TELESCOPE Instrument for viewing or detecting distant objects.
OBSERVATORY Building or place given over to or equipped for observation of natural phenomena.
INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION (ISS) Orbiting space satellite used for scientific & space research; construction began in 2001 with 16 other nations.
GALILEO GALILEI (1564 - 1642) Father of modern science; made improvements to the telescope; discovered 4 largest moons of Jupiter, among many other scientific accomplishments.
NASA National Aeronautics & Space Administration; American governmental agency dedicated to space exploration.
ELEMENT Pure substance composed of the same type of atom throughout.
PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS Table in which all the known elements are arranged by properties & are represented by 1 or 2 letters, referred to as chemical symbols.
HYDROSPHERE All of the water on Earth; hydro = water; sphere = globe
BIOSPHERE Sum of all living matter, made of a limited number of elements including oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, & phosphorus; bio = life; sphere = globe
ATMOSPHERE Layer of gas surrounding planet Earth, held in place by gravity; composed of a limited number of elements, primarily nitrogen & oxygen; atmo = air; sphere = globe
MATTER Anything that has mass & takes up space.
PROPERTIES Physical & chemical characteristics of matter used to describe or identify a substance.
MIXTURE Combination of 2 or more substances which do not chemically combine.
UNIFORM COMPOSITION Made of the same evenly distributed substance or combination of substances throughout; uni = one
ENERGY Ability of a system to do work; required for changes to happen within a system.
ENERGY RESOURCE Source or supply of energy that can be used to generate electrical power to meet people's needs.
RENEWABLE ENERGY Energy resource such as trees or wind that is replaceable by natural means.
NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY Energy resource that takes millions of years to form from the remains of plants & animals; examples include fossil fuels and nuclear energy.
FOSSIL FUEL Natural nonrenewable fuel such as coal, oil, or natural gas formed over a very long time in the geological past from the remains of living organisms.
COAL Hard, black solid fuel formed from the remains of plants over millions of years & extracted from the ground; nonrenewable fossil fuel.
PETROLEUM (OIL) Flammable, yellow-to-black liquid composed of hydrocarbons occurring naturally beneath Earth's surface; nonrenewable fossil fuel processed to make gasoline used in vehicles.
NATURAL GAS Gas, usually found in the ground positioned above petroleum deposits, that's burned to obtain energy; nonrenewable fossil fuel.
NUCLEAR POWER Energy harnessed from the decay of uranium atoms.
BIOMASS Material derived from living things; renewable energy source.
WIND ENERGY Turbines harness the movement of air & convert it to usable energy; renewable energy source.
HYDROPOWER Renewable source of energy based on the natural movement of water.
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Heat transferred from beneath the Earth's surface & used to produce renewable energy for human use.
SOLAR RESOURCES Sun's energy is collected & converted to usable energy; renewable energy resource.
POLLUTION Presence of harmful or unwanted levels of material in the environment.
LANDFILL Disposal site for solid waste.
GREENHOUSE GASES Gases in the atmosphere that trap heat within the atmosphere.
CATASTROPHIC EVENTS Extreme weather events such as floods, hurricanes, & tornadoes; classified by the extent & intensity of their impact on the ecosystem.
ECOSYSTEM System consisting of all the interactions that occur between the abiotic & biotic factors within an environment.
FLOOD Rising body of water that submerges normally dry land.
HURRICANE Large, tropical weather system in the northeastern Pacific or northern Atlantic Oceans consisting of an extreme low-pressure air mass with heavy rains & wind speeds of at least 119 km/h (74 mph).
TORNADO Violently rotating column of air extending from a thunderstorm to the ground with wind speeds from 40 to 318 mph.
HABOOB Large-scale dust storm.
WILDFIRE Large fire that spreads quickly over a natural area.
TSUNAMI Giant wave usually caused by an earthquake beneath the ocean floor.
DROUGHT Long period of dry weather.
VOLCANO Vent in the surface of Earth that emits ash, gases, &/or molten lava.
AVALANCHE Slide of large masses of snow, ice, & mud down a mountain.
LANDSLIDE Sudden movement of rock & soil down a slope.
SINKHOLE A hole formed when limestone is dissolved, causing the land above to collapse.
ECOREGION Relatively large area characterized by distinctive plant & animal communities, climate, & ecological features.
TOPOGRAPHY Description of land surface area with reference to elevation variations.
WEATHERING Mechanical or chemical processes that break rock into smaller pieces.
SEDIMENT Earth material broken down by processes of weathering; can be eroded & deposited by agents of water, wind, ice, & gravity.
EROSION Process by which water, ice, wind, & gravity remove & transport sediment from 1 place to another.
DEPOSITION Process by which gravity, water, wind, & ice deposit weathered & relocated sediment.
CANYON Deep gorge in the Earth, typically 1 with a river flowing through it.
SAND DUNE Hill of sand near an ocean or in a desert formed by the wind.
RIVER DELTA Landform made of sediment deposited where a river flows into an ocean or lake.
GLACIER Large mass of moving ice and snow on land.
VALLEY Area of low land between hills or mountains.
ICE WEDGING Process that splits rock when water seeps into cracks then freezes & expands.
HOODOO Column of weathered rock with a capstone on the top.
PLAINS Large area of flat land with few trees.
WATERSHED Area of land where surface water & groundwater drain into a particular body of water separated from each other by drainage divides.
DRAINAGE DIVIDE Geographical barrier, such as a ridge, hill, or mountain, separating 1 watershed land area from another.
SURFACE WATER Water from precipitation that drains into a gully that flows into a stream, which then flows into a river, lake, reservoir, estuary, wetland, or ocean.
GROUNDWATER Water that collects in cracks & pores in underground soil & rock layers.
WATER TABLE Top of the saturation zone, below which water fills all open spaces between the rock.
ZONE OF AERATION Upper portion of soil & rock that can be temporarily filled with water as the water enters the ground, but then moves deeper.
SATURATION ZONE Below the water table where all spaces not filled with solid material fill with water.
AQUIFER Layer of permeable rock that allows water to flow through.
PERMEABLE ROCK Allows water movement to flow through the material; opposite of impermeable.
SUBSIDENCE Sunken land surface due to underlying compression of earth material as a result of the removal of groundwater.
POINT SOURCE WATER POLLUTION Single identifiable & localized source of water pollution, such as waste-water discharge into a stream.
NON-POINT SOURCE WATER POLLUTION Pollutants introduced into surface or groundwater that are without a specific location source, such as water flowing over a lawn that has been fertilized & then into a drain.
ATMOSPHERE Entire mass of air that surrounds Earth, made up of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, & trace amounts of other gases.
OZONE LAYER Gas in Earth’s atmosphere that absorbs most of the damaging high-energy ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.
SOLAR WINDS Continuous stream of charged particles from the Sun, w/ variations in the stream causing beautiful aurora displays (northern lights), & geomagnetic storms that knock out power grids on Earth.
EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD Magnetic lines of force from Earth’s polar north & south, acting like a giant magnet.
MAGNETOSPHERE Area that deflects & traps harmful particles; resulting from an interaction of Earth’s magnetic field with solar “wind” (charged plasma) streaming from the Sun.
SOLAR SYSTEM Collection of planets & their moons in orbit around a sun, together with smaller bodies in the form of asteroids, meteoroids, & comets.
COMPOSITION Combination of parts or elements that make up something; e.g., Earth's atmosphere is composed mostly of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), & trace amounts of CO2, ozone, water vapor, & other gases.
PROXIMITY Nearness in space, time, or relationship; e.g., Earth's proximity to the sun allows it to maintain proper temperatures to sustain life.
ASTRONAUT A person trained to be part of a spacecraft crew.
SPACE WALK An activity in which an astronaut moves around and does work outside a spacecraft while in space.
SPACE SUIT A complex system of garments that allow astronauts to work safely outside their spacecraft.
MICROMETEOROIDS Tiny meteoroids traveling fast enough to damage spacecraft.
MICROGRAVITY The condition in which people or objects appear to be weightless.
VACUUM A volume of space mostly empty of matter, such as oxygen to breathe.
ATMOSPHERE The entire mass of air that surrounds Earth, made up of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and trace amounts of other gases.
OZONE LAYER Gas in Earth’s atmosphere that absorbs most of the damaging high-energy ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.
ULTRAVIOLET (UV) RADIATION A portion of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted by the Sun; can cause tanning, sun burning, and skin cancers.
SOLAR WINDS A continuous stream of charged particles from the Sun, with variations in the stream causing beautiful aurora displays (northern lights), as well as geomagnetic storms that knock out power grids on Earth.
EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD Magnetic lines of force from Earth’s polar north and south, acting like a giant magnet.
MAGNETOSPHERE An area that deflects and traps harmful particles; resulting from an interaction of Earth’s magnetic field with solar “wind” (charged plasma) streaming from the Sun.
COMPOSITION The combination of parts or elements that make up something; e.g., Earth's atmosphere is composed mostly of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), and trace amounts of argon, carbon dioxide, ozone, water vapor, and other gases.
PROXIMITY Nearness in space, time, or relationship; e.g., Earth's proximity to the sun allows it to maintain proper temperatures to sustain life.
Created by: trauberk