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First AID


condylomata lata Secondary syphilis smooth, painless, wart-like white lesions on genitals
Intestinal tapeworm Taenia solium Praziquantel
Cysticercosis, neurocysticercosis (cystic CNS lesions, seizures) Taenia solium - Praziquantel - albendazole for neurocysticercosis
Echinococcus granulosus - Hydatid cysts “eggshell calcification'' in liver - cyst rupture can cause anaphylaxis Albendazole
Schistosoma mansoni - trematode egg with lateral spine - fibrosis, inflammation, - portal hypertension Praziquantel
S haematobium - Chronic infection - (egg with terminal spine ) - lead to squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder - (painless hematuria) and pulmonary hypertension Praziquantel
Schistosoma mansoni - intermediate host (snails) - cercariae penetrate skin of humans in contact with contaminated fresh water
surface ectoderm Epidermis; adenohypophysis (from Rathke pouch); lens of eye epithelial linings of oral cavity, sensory organs of ear, olfactory epithelium; anal canal below the pectinate line; parotid, sweat, mammary glands.
Craniopharyngioma —benign Rathke pouch tumor with cholesterol crystals, calcifications.
Neural tube Brain (neurohypophysis, CNS neurons, oligo- dendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells, pineal gland), retina, spinal cord THINK CNS
neural crest - Melanocytes, - Odontoblasts, - Tracheal lining, - Enterochromafin cells, Leptomeninges (arachnoid, pia), PNS ganglia (cranial, dorsal root, autonomic), Schwann cells, Adrenal medulla, Spiral membrane (aorticopulmonary septum), Endocardial cushions, Skull bones
Mesoderm Muscle, bone, connective tissue, serous linings of body cavities (eg, peritoneum, pericardium, pleura), spleen (derived from foregut mesentery), cardiovascular structures, lymphatics, blood, wall of gut tube, upper vagina, kidneys, adrenal cortex, dermis, testes, ovaries.
Endoderm Gut tube epithelium (including anal canal above the pectinate line), most of urethra and lower vagina (derived from urogenital sinus), lungs, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, eustachian tube, thymus, parathyroid, parafollicular (C) cells of the thyroid.
drug induced digoxin toxicity. Quinidine, amiodarone, verapamil, and spironolactone all displace digoxin from its binding site
patient's fasting lipid profile shows a reduced HDL cholesterol and normal triglyceride with elevated serum cholesterol Reduced tissue LDL uptake Serum cholesterol is carried in LDL, VLDL, HDL, chylomicrons (after a meal). the fasting state, - serum cholesterol is essentially carried in LDL, VLDL, and HDL
Botulinum toxin Cleaves the SNAP-25 protein pre-synaptic inhibitor inhibits release of acetylcholine (ACh) at the neuromuscular junctions
SNAP-25 protein - SNARE protein involved in fusion of pre-synaptic vesicles containing acetylcholine with neuronal membrane for release. Botulinum toxin
Conotoxin Inhibition of calcium channels
Lead Induction of neuron apoptosis RX; Calcium disodium EDTA, dimercaprol, succimer, penicillamine
Mercury Inhibiting glutamate transport RX; Dimercaprol, succimer
Cohort studies startS with a group of subjects enrolled on the basis of exposure. COMPARES outcome, usually occurrence of a disease, between persons with and without the exposure determines if there is an association between exposure and outcome
Case-control studies are retrospective and start with a known outcome e.g pt with prostate cancer matched with healthy controls and evaluated for exposure in the two groups. odds ratio
Aminoglycoside Inhibit the 30S subunit of bacterial ribosomes. MOA; 1.) disruption of the initiation complex, 2.) inhibition of protein synthesis, 3.) disruption of the cell membrane taken up into bacterial cells via an oxygen-dependent mechanism . IT IS bactericidal. penicillins and aminoglycosides act synergistically
Oxybutynin, muscaranic antagonist Genitourinary Reduce bladder spasms and urge urinary incontinence (overactive bladder)
Hyoscyamine, dicyclomine muscaranic antagonist Antispasmodics for irritable bowel syndrome.
solifenacin, tolterodine muscaranic antagonist Reduce bladder spasms and urge urinary incontinence (overactive bladder).
Erysipelas Infection involving upper dermis well-de ned, raised demarcation between infected and normal skin S pyogenes.
Necrotizing fasciitis Deeper tissue injury. - “Flesh-eating bacteria.” - crepitus from methane and CO2 production. Causes bullae and skin necrosis violaceous color of bullae, surrounding skin . Surgical emergency. anaerobic bacteria or S pyogenes
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome Exotoxin destroys keratinocyte attachments in stratum granulosum - fever - generalized erythematous rash - sloughing of the upper layers of the epidermis that heals completely ⊕ Nikolsky sign (separation of epidermis upon manual stroking of skin
erythema multiforme. most commonly herpes simplex virus. skin eruption characterized by a typical target lesion
Superior oblique fourth cranial nerve
an eye which is pointed “down and out” third nerve palsy - unopposed actions of the lateral rectus and superior oblique muscles - an enlarged pupil due to failure of the pupillary constrictor muscles.
third cranial nerve innervates the inferior rectus, superior rectus, medial rectus and inferior oblique muscles.
third nerve palsy possible after an orbital fracture because of direct injury to the nerve as it traverses the orbital apex
Clostridium tetani Tetanospasmin proteases that cleave SNARE (soluble NSF attachment protein receptor), - required for neurotransmitter release via vesicular fusion Toxin prevents release of inhibitory (GABA and glycine) neurotransmitters from Renshaw cells in spinal cord
sarcoidosis - immune-mediated, - widespread noncaseating granulomas (noncaseating epithelioid, containing microscopic Schaumann and asteroid bodies) - elevated serum ACE levels, - elevated CD4/CD8 ratio in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid - hypercalcemia (due to 1α-hydroxylase–mediated vitamin D activation in macrophages CXR shows bilateral adenopathy and coarse reticular opacities
how does sarcoidosis present? enlarged lymph nodes if symptomatic Associated with - Bell palsy, - Uveitis, , - Lupus pernio (skin lesions on face resembling lupus), - Interstitial fibrosis (restrictive lung disease), - Erythema nodosum -Rheumatoid arthritis-like arthropathy,
lepromatous leprosy - communicable (high bacterial load); - can be Lethal. - strong Th1 response and no Th2 response. 1.) infects skin and superficial nerves—“glove and stocking” loss of sensation 2.) loss of myelinated and unmyelinated axons
facial nerve composed of: - a main motor part - a minor (sensory and parasympathetic) part. The motor part innervates: the stapedius muscle in the middle ear, stylohyoid muscle, posterior belly of the digastric muscle in the upper neck , the muscles of the facial expression in the face. minor part --> lacrimal gland through pterygopalatine ganglion, - chorda tympani, provides taste sensation to anterior two-thirds of tongue and parasympathetic innervation to the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands.
Pt presents with Progressive worsening cognition, ataxia and condition. MRI findings of demyelination of the periventricular deep white matter with prominent involvement of the splenium of the corpus callosum adrenoleukodystrophy X-linked recessive disorder of of β-oxidation - most commonly affects males - mutation in ABCD1 gene - VLCFA buildup in adrenal glands, white (leuko) matter of brain, testes.
Ectoderm surface ectoderm neural tube neural crest
Created by: beccao



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