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Chapter 6

Earth's Solar System

TermDefinition
Earth is at the center and the sun and planets orbit it. Geocentric
Earth and other planets revolve around the sun. Heliocentric
The movement of one object around another Revolution
An oval shape Ellipse
Consists of the sun, planets and their moons, asteroids, comets, and meteors Solar System
The average distance from the sun to earth. 150,000,000 kilometers Astronomical Unit
Must be round, orbit the sun, and have cleared out the region of the solar system in its orbit. Planet
An object that orbits the sun and has enough gravity to be spherical, but has not the area of its orbit. Dwarf Planet
Every object in the universe attracts every other object Law of Universal Gravitation
The tendency to resist a change of motion Inertia
An object at rest will stay at rest, an object in motion will stay in motion with a constant speed and direction unless a force acts on it. Newtons First Law of Motion
The sun produces an enormous amount of energy in the central region through nuclear fusion Core
Hydrogen atoms join to form helium. Nuclear Fusion
Region where gas is tightly packed and energy moves in the form of electromagnetic radiation Radiation Zone
Outer most layer of the suns interior; hot gases rise from the bottom cool then sink back down. Convection Zone
The inner layer of the suns atmosphere; considered to be the suns surface layer and gives off the light Photosphere
Gives the sun the reddish color; middle layer of the suns atmosphere Chromosphere
The outer layer which looks like a white halo around the sun; you can see this during a total solar eclipse Corona
Where the corona extends out in to space it gradually thins out into streams of electrically charged particles. Solar Winds
Huge loops of gas usually connecting sunspots Prominence
Eruptions of gas on the sun's surface Solar Flare
Inner planets that are smaller and dense, and have a rocky surface. Terrestrial Planet
Trapping of heat by the atmosphere Greenhouse Effect
Outer planets that are larger and more massive than Earth, they do not have a solid surface. Gas Giant
A thin disk of small particles of ice and rock Ring
Jupiter's largest moons; Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto Galilean Moons
The region between Mars and Jupiter that consists mostly of asteroids Asteroid Belt
Beyond Neptune's orbit. 100 au. Kuiper Belt
Beyond the Kuiper Belt a spherical region of comets. 1000 times the distance of Neptune to earth. Oort Cloud
Lose collections of ice and dust with rocky particles, orbits can be very long narrow ellipses. Comet
Clouds of gas and dust form a fuzzy outer layer on a comet Coma
Solid inner core of a comet Nucleus
Small, irregular, rocky objects that orbit the sun; too small to be considered a dwarf planet Asteroid
Chunks of rock and metal smaller than asteroids Meteoroid
When entering the earth's atmosphere the friction creates a streak in the sky Meteor
Meteoroids that pass through earth's atmosphere and are found on earth. Meteorite
Dark areas on the sun; much cooler than the surrounding areas. Sun Spot
Created by: MacyB