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pt 1-Morristown-VF

Part 1 Revolution Morristown to Valley Forge

When Gen. Washington arrives in Morristown in 1777, he has some real problems to deal with his generals are arguing among themselves; the Congress doesn't want to be bothered; and, the Colonies want supplies they send to be used only by their people!
Gen. Washington develops a new battle strategy while at Morristown: He decides to use hit and run tactics and the concept of tactical withdrawal to save lives and resources.
How does Congress expect Gen. Washington to survive on the battlefield? They expect him to live off the land and get what he needs the same way the British do: take it from the people.
What is Gen. Washington's attitude towards the Loyalists? He refuses to abuse them or take their belongings as long as they stay out of he fight.
If Gen. Washington runs into any Loyalists that get in the way? He packs them up and sends them to live with the British.
Why does Gen Washington's men often run low on food and clothing? He refuses to take anything not offered from the people.
Gen. Washington irritated the Colonies by using this term: "The United States"
The Colonies believed that anything they gave to Gen. Washington would be used for their people alone. What was Gen. Washington's attitude about that? He used any supplies provided for all his men
In any war, there is always a "Center of Gravity" it is that critical piece of the puzzle and if you take away that then your enemy collapses. What did Gen Howe believe was the Center of Gravity for the American Revolution? General Washington! Remove him and it is over.
As Spring arrives in Morristown, from where does Gen. Washington get his new enlistments? Young men disadvantaged by the economy with no family ties to hold them back.
Gen. Washington asks Congress for cash incentives to raise the army. What does Congress do? They can't provide cash or anything else. The Colonies can and raise their own militias.
Who helps Gen. Washington by bypassing the Colonies and Congress with direct support from Europe? Ben Franklin
As Spring moves towards Summer, what is Gen. Washington's concern? What is Gen. Howe going to do?
What is Gen. Howe's opinion of the American fighting force? He thinks they are ungentlemanly and unsoldierly because they don't fight like Europeans.
Who gave Gen. Howe the plan to defeat Gen. Washington in order to save his own neck? Gen. Charles Lee, who was captured prior to the Battle of Trenton
As Gen. Washington prepares to leave Morristown, what does the King think of the Colonists he is fighting? He thinks they still love him and will come back into line over time, giving up on this nonsense.
How was the war being received in Great Britain? It was not very popular! Even some members of Parliament sided with the Colonies!
With summer arriving, what does Gen. Washington think of all this non-action by Gen. Howe? He has to fight while his troops are ready and eager.
What problems would Gen. Washington have with his men if he simply waited on Gen. Howe? An idle army gets in trouble; more men die in camp from disease than in battle; constant drilling leads to boredom and desertions.
Gen. Howe can either go north to divide the Colonies, invade the Hudson River Valley; or, go south to threaten Congress. Which course of action does he choose? He goes south
Gen. Washington arrays his army to counter Gen. Howe. Where does he personally go? Gen. Washington goes south to confront Gen. Howe.
What is Gen. Howe's nickname for Gen. Washington? The "Grey Fox"
By moving south, Gen. Howe has left another General high and dry up north. Who was that? Gen. Burgoyne
Why does Gen. Howe quit the Colony of New Jersey? He doesn't want to fight against sharpshooters in the dense forests.
The Iroquois did not want to fight on either side during the Revolutionary War. How were they convinced to fight by the British? The British demanded that they keep their word and uphold the Treaty they made with them.
How did the Americans convince the Iroquois to fight with them? They lived together and their help was needed.?
Which members of the Six Nations of the Iroquois sided with the Americans? Oneida and Tuscarora
What was Gen. Burgoyne's plan to defeat the Colonies? Divide and Conquer by splitting the New England Colonies from the rest of the Colonies and isolating them.
How did Gen. Washington keep track of Gen. Howe's movements after he left New York City? He established a series of coast watchers to look for Gen. Howe's 260 ship fleet.
Gen. Washington split his army into a Northern and Southern Department. Who commanded the Northern Department? Gen. Gates (The same guy that was kicked out of Trenton before that battle).
This young Frenchman arrived in America to fight for Gen. Washington at the age of 19. Congress gave him a commission as a Major General. Who was this? Lafayette.
This was the most violent battle of the entire Revolutionary War: The Battle of Oriskany
LTC St. Leger and his Iroquois ally, Joseph Brant, ambushed the American militia as they attempted to break the siege of Ft. Stanwix. Who led the American force? Gen. Herkimer
At the end of the Battle of Oriskany, what happened to the British Iroquois allies? They left the field and were never an effective fighting force for the British again.
St. Leger was forced to retreat at Oriskany how did this affect Gen. Burgoyne's plan? St. Leger never linked up with him, taking away a third of his planned envelopment.
Which American General completed the rout of St. Leger by using a captured spy trying to save his own neck to lie to him about the size of the enemy force approaching? Gen. Arnold
Why was the Battle of Bennington a big deal? Gen. Burgoyne was denied needed supplies, lost 1000 men, and the rest of his Indian allies left him.
At Bennington, the Hessians were told not to shoot at the loyalist soldiers who had white paper in their hats. What did the Americans do? They spoke German, heard the order, then Gen. Stark had all his men put white paper on their hats as well.
Did the Indian allies under Gen. Burgoyne simply leave after Bennington? The Indians held a council and decided to officially leave the force and go home. It was very deliberate.
In the south, Gen. Washington decides that Gen. Howe is going to attack Philadelphia. He sets up his defense on Chadd's Ford on which creek? Brandywine Creek.
What is known as America's first September 11th? The Battle of Brandywine Creek.
Congress is concerned about the potential of a British victory and occupation of Philadelphia. What actions do they take? They send observers out to approve Gen. Washington's positions.
Which is the largest battle of the Revolutionary War? Battle of Brandywine.
Gen. Washington figures that the outcome of Brandywine will be big. What does he think is possible? Win here and freedom is ours!
How are the Hessians used by Gen. Howe at Brandywine? He places them in the center to make Washington think that the main force is there.
How do the Hessians trick Gen. Washington into believing they are the main threat at Brandywine? They move in and out of the forests and put Gen. Howe's supply wagons out In full view.
While the Hessians hold Gen. Washington in place, what does Gen. Howe do? Gen. Howe sends 8000 men north under the command of Gen. Cornwallis to come in behind Gen. Washington's force.
How does Gen. Washington find out that Gen. Howe's forces are moving behind him? Squire Cheyney rides 7 miles to alert Gen. Washington
After Gen. Howe has his men march 17 miles in 11 hours with full pack, what does he decide to do? Stop for tea!!!
Gen. Howe routs Gen. Washington's force on the Brandywine. What does Gen. Lafayette do? He leads a bayonet charge to stop the British and is wounded.
Gen. Howe has Gen. Washington on the run at Brandywine but then stops the attack. Why? His men were exhausted. He lost 33 to heat stroke and almost 2000 overall.
What is Gen. Howe's next move after Brandywine? He occupies Philadelphia 2 weeks later.
Gen. Burgoyne lost provisions at Bennington, St. Leger's force and his Iroquois guides and fighters. What was he still hoping would happen? That Gen. Clinton would come north up the Hudson from New York City.
Why was Gen. Burgoyne called "Gentleman Johnny" Because he wrote plays and was a partier.
Why was Gen Grey called "No Flint"? He would have his men remove the flints from their muskets and use the bayonet.
What did the Americans think of the British use of the bayonet? They thought it was a barbaric form of warfare.
What was so gruesome about the "Massacre at Paoli"? Gen Grey's men stabbed and burned the wounded Americans
Gen. Anthony Wayne's men were the victims at Paoli. What was the biggest fear of the British soldiers afterward? That Gen. "Mad Anthony"Wayne and his men would seek revenge.
Gen. Washington was hoping for one victory before going into winter quarters. Where was he hoping to achieve this victory? Germantown.
Gen. Washington wanted to use the same tactics at Germantown that he used at Trenton to defeat the British. Did it work? No, fog and smoke confused the units and they ended up firing on each other. It was a disaster.
Which members of the Six Nations of the Iroquois sided with the British during the Revolutionary War? Mohawk, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca
How many Electoral votes are required to be elected President? 270
The District of Columbia (Washington DC) is not a state, but they can vote in the Presidential election. How many Electoral Votes are allocated to them? Three (the same as the smallest state).
Do the US Territories vote in Federal Elections No, because they do not pay Federal Taxes.
If the President and Vice President are removed from office, who becomes the President? The Speaker of the House of Representatives.
Which Amendment protects citizens from unreasonable search and seizure and guarantee security of one's private papers without a warrant? The Fourth Amendment
What rights are guaranteed by the First Amendment? The right to freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom of the Press, the right to assembly, and the right to petition the government for the redress of grievances.
Does Freedom of Religion mean that you can prohibit any religion you do not agree with? No, it means everyone has the right to freely practice the religion of their choice.
Is it Freedom OF Religion or Freedom From Religion? OF
If the President is impeached, who presides over the trial? The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
Which body of government brings forth the Articles of Impeachment? The House of Representatives
What is the punishment for anyone found guilty in the Impeachment Trial? Removal from office.
Can Justices of the Supreme Court be impeached for their actions? Yes
What is a cause for General Washington's defeat at Brandywine? His failure to cover all possible crossing sites.
What happened at Bennington to cause the defeat of Burgoyne at Saratoga? (effect) Lost 1000 men, Indian left him, lost valuable supplies
What was the effect of the Hessians being given orders in German that the Tories would have white paper in their hats? The American force was mostly German, heard the orders and put white paper in their hats as well. Hessians didn't fire on them.
What were the causes of Burgoyne's decision to attack Bennington? St. Leger was routed, General Howe went to Philadelphia, and Burgoyne, now on his own, needed supplies to continue his plan.
Why did Gen. Washington move units from the north to the center at Brandywine? He thought the main attack was in the center.
Why didn't Gen. Washington know about Gen. Howe's crossing at Jeffries Ford? The unit he sent north returned saying there were no enemy forces.
What were the causes for Gen. Howe to stop the fight at the Brandywine instead of continuing into the night? He could have destroyed Gen. Washington (again!) His men were exhausted, lost 33 to Heat Stroke, and had lost 1,976 men killed or wounded,
Why did Gen. Washington think the main force of the British at Brandywine was in front of him? Because the Hessians kept moving in and out of the forest, making it seem like they were a larger force. All the supply trains were put out in the open for Washington to see.