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Osteology Unit

The ins and outs of the BONES!

Functions of the bones... Support, movement, protection, mineral storage, blood-cell formation, energy metabolism
What are "lamella?" Rings in bones, growth rings
What are "Lacuna?" Divots, future osteoblasts * produce protein = osteoid*
1. What percentage of organic components are in bone tissue? 2. What does it do for bone? 1. 35% 2. Contribute to flexibility
1. What percentage of inorganic components are in bone tissue? 2. What does it do for bone? 1. 65% 2. Provide exceptional hardness, resists compression
Enamel (amnioblasts) enamelin & amelogenin, 90% inorganic
Dentin (odontoblasts) 70% inorganic, 20% organic, neural crest origin
What are the three types of cells in bone? Osteogenic cells, Osteoblasts, and Osteocytes
What do Osteogenic cells do? Stem cells that differentiate into osteoblasts
What do osteoblasts do? Actively produce & secrete bone matrix (bone matrix is osteoid)
Name 6 cranial bones that are visible on the lateral view of a skull Parietal, frontal, occipital, temporal, zygomatic, sphenoid
The _____ suture joints the frontal to the parietal bones Coronal
The parietal bones are fused along the midline by the _______ suture Sagittal
The ______ suture joins the parietal bones to the occipital bones lambdoid
The temporal bones are jointed to the parietal bones along the ______ sutures Squamous
Name 3 cranial bones that contain sinuses Sphenoid, ethmoid, frontal bones
Name a facial bone that contains a sinus Maxilla
Which bone forms sagittal, coronal, squamous, and lambdoid sutures? Parietal bone
Which bone forms the Cribriform Plate? Ethmoid bone
Which bone forms the Crista galli? Ethmoid bone
Which bone forms the External acoustic meatus? Temporal bone
Which bone forms the foramen magnum? Occipital bone
Which bone forms the Mandibular Fossa? Temporal bone
Which bone forms the Mastoid process? Temporal bone
Which bone forms the Middle nasal concha? Ethmoid bone
Which bone forms the Occipital Condyle? Occipital bone
Which bone forms the Sella Turcica? Sphenoid bone
Which bone forms the Styloid Process? Temporal bone
Which bone forms the Supraorbital Foramen? Frontal bone
Which bone forms the bridge of the nose? Palatine bone
What bone is only moveable in the facial skeleton? Mandible
What bone contains coronoid process? Mandible
What bone creates prominence of cheek inferior and lateral to the eye? Zygomatic bone
What bone contains sockets of upper teeth? Maxilla
What bone forms inferior portion of nasal septum? Inferior nasal concha
What bone forms anterior portion of zygomatic arch? Vomer
What bone is scroll-shaped? Inferior nasal concha
What bone forms posterior roof of mouth? Palatine bone
What bone forms anterior roof of mouth? Maxilla
What is the small medial bone on each orbital? Lacrimal bone
The vertebral column encloses and protects the ______? Spinal cord
The ______ of the vertebrae support the weight of the head and trunk? Body
The ________ separate adjacent vertebrae, and they soften the forces created by walking? Intervertebral discs
The Intervertebral foramina provide passageways for _____ _____? Spinal nerves
Transverse foramina of a cervical vertebrae serve as passageways for _____ _____ leading to the brain? Blood vessels
The 1st vertebrae is also called the ______? Atlas
When the head is moved from side to side, the first vertebrae pivots around the ______ of the second vertebrae? dens
The _____ vertebrae have the largest and strongest bodies? Lumbar
The typical number of the vertebrae that fuse in the adults to form the sacrum is _____? 5
An opening called the ____ ____ exists at the tip of the sacral canal? sacral hiatus
The last two pairs of ribs that have no cartilaginous attachments to the sternum are sometimes called _________ ribs? floating
There are ___ pairs of true ribs? 7
The manubrium articulates with the _______ on its superior boarder. clavicles
General functions of the thoracic cage? 1. Protect Lungs & Heart 2. Attachment to intercoastal muscle 3. Provide pumping mechanism for breathing
The pectoral girdle is an incomplete ring because it is open in the back between the _______? scapula
The medial end of the clavicle articulates with the ________ of the sternum? Manubrium
The lateral end of the clavicle articulates with the _______ process of the scapula? acromion
The ______ divides the posterior side of the scapula into unequal portions? Spine
Near the lateral end of the scapula, the _____ process curves anteriorly and inferiorly from the clavicle? Coracoid
The glenoid cavity of the scapula articulates with the ______ of the hummers? head
The lateral tip of the shoulder is the ______ process of the scapula? Acromion
What bone coordinates with the Capitate? Carpals
What bones coordinate with the Coronoid fossa? Humerus
What bones coordinate with the Deltoid tuberosity? Humerus
What bones coordinate with the Greater Tubercle? Humerus
What bones coordinate with the Intertubercular Sulcus? Humerus
What bones coordinate with the Lunate? Carpals
What bones coordinate Olecranon Fossa? Humerus
What bones coordinate with the Five palmer bones? Metacarpals
What bones coordinate with the Radial Tuberosity? Radius
What bones coordinate with the Trapezium? Carpals
What bones coordinate with the Trochlear Notch? Ulna
What bones coordinate with the fourteen bones in the digits? Phalanges
The pelvic girdle consists of 2 _____ _____? Coxae bones
The head of the femur articulates with the ________ of the hip bone? Acetabulum
The _______ is the largest portion of the hip bone? Ilium
The pubic bones come together anteriorly to form a cartilaginous joint called the _____ _____? Pubic symphysis
The ___ _____ is the portion of the ilium that causes the prominence of the hip? Iliac crest
When a person sits, the ___ ____ of the ischium supports the weight of the body? Ischial Tuberosity
The angle formed by the pubic bones below the pubic symphysis is called the _____ _____? Pubic Arch
The ilium joins the sacrum to the ________ joint? Sacroiliac
What bone articulates with the Middle Phalanx? Phalanges
What bone articulates with the Lesser trochanter? Femur
What bones articulates with the Medial malleolus? Tibia
What bone articulates with the Fovea capitis? Femur
What bone articulates with the Calcaneus? Tarsals
What bones articulates with the Lateral Cuneiform? Tarsals
What bones articulate with the Talus? Tarsals
What bones articulate with the Tibial tuberosity? Tibia
What bones articulate with the Lateral Malleolus? Fibula
What bones articulate with the Cuboid? Tarsals
What bones articulate with the 5 bones forming the instep? Metatarsals
What bone is located in a tendon above the knee? Patella
A ______ of the skull is an example of an immovable (synarthrotic) joint? Suture
The structural type of joint at the distal tibia and fibula is _______? Fibrous
Intervertebral discs are composed of _______? Fibrocartilage
________ are the most commo type of structural joints in the human body? Synovial
______ ______ acts as a joint lubricant in synovial joints? Synovial fluid
The discs of fibrocartilage between articulating surfaces of the knee are called ______? Menisci
The pubic symphysis is an example of _________ structural joint? Cartilaginous
Articular cartilage is composed o f _______ tissue? Hyaline
What type of joint is the hip joint? Ball-and-socket joint
What type of joint is the metacarpal-phalanx? Condylar (Ellipsoidal)
What type of joint is the proximal radius-ulna? Pivot
What type of joint is the Phalanx-Phalanx? Hinge
What type of joint is the Shoulder joint? Ball-and-socket joint
What type of joint is Tarsal-tarsal? Plane (Gliding) joint
What type of joint is Carpal-metacarpal of the thumb? Saddle
What type of joint is carpal-carpal? Plane (gliding)
What type of joint is the Humerus-ulna of the elbow joint? Hinge
What is a membranous channel extending inward from muscle fiber membrane Transverse tubule
What is cytoplasm of a muscle fiber? Sarcoplasm
What is connective tissue located between adjacent muscles? Fascia
What is a layer of connective tissue that separates a muscle into small bundles called fascicles? Perimysium
Cell membrane of a muscle fiber? Sarcolemma
Layer of connective tissue that surrounds a skeletal muscle? Epimysium
Unit of alternating light and dark striations between Z lines? Sarcomere
Layer of connective tissue that surrounds an individual muscle fiber? Endomysium
Cellular organelle in muscle fiber corresponding to the endoplasmic reticulum? Sarcoplasm
Cordlike part that attaches muscle to bone? Tendon
Protein found within THICK filaments? Myosin
Small bundle of muscle fibers within a muscle? Fascicle
When the _______ ______ contracts, the corner of the mouth is elevated. Zygomaticus major
The ______ acts to compress the wall of the cheek as when air is blown out of the mouth. Buccinator
The ____ _____ causes the lips to close and pucker during kissing, whistling, and speaking. Orbicularis Oris
The _______ act to elevate and retract the mandible. Temporalis
The ___________ can flex the head and neck toward the chest. Sternocleidomastoid
The _____ _____ can close the eye, as in blinking. Orbicularis Oculi
The muscle used to pout and to express horror by pulling the lower lip downward is the __________ Platysma
Origin: Occipital bone Insertion: Skin around eye Epicranus
Origin: Zygomatic bone Insertion: Corner of mouth skin and muscle Zygomatic major
Origin: Zygomatic arch Insertion: Lateral surface of mandible Massetor
Origin: Manubrium of sternum and clavicle Insertion: Mastoid process of temporal bone Sternocleidomastoid
Origin: Alveolar processes of mandible and maxilla Insertion: Orbicularis oris Buccinator
Origin: Fascia in upper chest Insertion: Mandible and skin below mouth Platysma
Origin: Temporal bone Insertion: Coronoid process of mandible Temporalis
Origin: Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae Insertion: Surfaces of ribs 1-2 Scalenus posterior
Origin: Transverse processes of upper thoratic vertebrae Insertion: Occipital bone Semisplenius capitis
What muscle abducts arm and flexes and extends arm at shoulder? Deltoid
What muscle flexes the arm at shoulder, adducts and medially roates arm? Pectoralis major
What muscle flexes wrist and adducts hand Flexor carpi ulnaris
What muscle elevates and retracts scapula? Rhomboid Major
What muscle depresses and protracts scapula? Pectoralis minior
What muscle is used to thrust shoulder anteriorly (protraction), as when pushing something? Serratus anterior
What muscle flexes elbow? Brachialis
What muscle flexes shoulder and adducts arm? Coracobrachialis
What muscle extends elbow? Triceps brachii
What muscle extends shoulder and adducts and medially rotates arm? Teres major
What muscle extends wrist and adducts hand? Extensor carpi ulnaris
What muscle laterally rotates arm? Infraspinatus
What do osteocytes do? Keep bone matrix healthy 1) resorption of bone 2) derived from line of WBC 3) Secrete hydrochloric acid & lysomal enzymes
What is the typical structure of a long bone? Diaphysis, Epiphysis, Blood vessels, Medullary cavity, and membranes
What is the diaphysis? "shaft" of a bone
What is the Epiphysis? Ends of the bone
True or False: Blood vessels in bones are vascularized? True
What is the Medullary cavity filled with? Yellow marrow
What membranes are in a long bone? Periosteum, perforating fiber(Sharpey`s fibers), & Endosteum
What does the diaphysis meet the epiphysis on? Meets epiphysis at metaphysical plate
Terminal trabeculae Spongy bone over compact bone (cortex)
Outermost Periosteum Sharpey`s fibers, channeled by nutrient foramen
Innermost endosteum Lines medullary cavity and haverdarian canal/ volk mann canals
Ossification (osteogenesis) bone tissue formation
What is membrane bone? Formed rom mesenchyme = intramembranous ossification
Endochondral (replacement bone) develop from hyaline cartilage = endochondral ossification
What does the thyroid hormone do? Ensures skeleton retains proper proportions
What does the growth hormone do? Produced by pituitary gland, and stimulates epiphysial plates
Sex hormone (estrogen and testosterone) promote bone growth and later induce closure of epiphysial plates
Osteoporosis? Bones become brittle and fragile from loss of tissue. Occurs post menopause
Paget`s disease? excessive rate of bone disposition
Osteosarcoma? Form of bone cancer
Osteomalacia? In adult bones, bones are inadequately mineralized
3 C`s of the common knee injuries? Collateral ligaments Cruciate ligaments Cartilages (menisci)
Lateral blows to an extended knee results in what possible tears? TCL, medial meniscus, and ACL
Why does cartilage rarely repair itself? Lacks blood supply
What is tendonitis? Inflammation of the tendon sheaths, caused by overuse
What is Bursitis? Inflammation of the bursa, usually caused by blow or friction, treated w/ rest and ice, or anti-inflammatory drugs
What is Arthritis? Inflammatory disease of joints, most widespread disease in the U.S, Pain and stiffness of joints, caused by bacteria treated w/ antibiotics
What are the chronic forms of Arthrisis? Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Gouty Arthritis
Osteoarthritis? most common, irreversible, Cartilage is broken down faster than it is replaced, Bone spurs (osteophytes) may form from thickened bone ends
Rheumatoid Arthritis? Chronic, autoimmune disease, Arises btwn 40-50 years old, effects 3X more women than men, Treated w/ steroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Gouty Arthritis? Deposition of uric acid crystals in joints and soft tissue, more common in men =have more uric acid than females, untreated=bones ends fuse together and immobilize joint, drugs, water, and avoiding alcohol and high purine food for treatment
Lyme disease caused by bacteria in tick bites, leads to joint pain or arthritis, symptoms=skin rash, flu symptoms, and foggy thinking, Antibiotics for treatment
What is the network of skeletal muscle? Large blood vessels and capillaries
Created by: Starbucksjunkie