Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Ch.18-Obstetrics

QuestionAnswer
Obstetrics Field of medicine that deals with pregnancy (prenatal), delivery of the baby, and the first six weeks after delivery (postpartum period)
Pregnancy Nine calendar months or ten lunar months; Forty weeks or 280 days; Divided into trimesters; Three intervals of 3 months each Known as gestational period
Union of a sperm and a mature ovum Takes place in outer third of fallopian tube
Zygote Initial name for fertilized ovum
Embryo Name of product of conception from second through eighth week of pregnancy
Fetus Name of product of conception from ninth week through duration of gestational period
Amniotic Sac Also known as the fetal membrane; Strong, thin-walled membranous sac that envelops and protects the growing fetus, Amniotic fluid within sac cushions and protects fetus during pregnancy
Chorion Outer layer of amniotic sac
Amnion Inner layer of amniotic sac
Placenta Temporary organ of pregnancy; Provides for fetal respiration, nutrition, excretion
Placenta functions as an Endocrine Gland by Producing hormones necessary for normal pregnancy Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), estrogen, progesterone, and human placental lactogen (HPL)
Maternal side of Placenta Attached to wall of uterus; Has a “beefy” red appearance
Fetal side of Placenta Shiny, slightly grayish; Contains arteries and veins intertwining to form umbilical cord; Lifeline between mother and fetus. Transports nutrients & wastes to & from developing fetus Arises from center of placenta and attaches to umbilicus of fetus
Amenorrhea Absence of menstruation; Menstruation usually stops as a result of hormonal influence during pregnancy
Uterus Small, pear-shaped organ before pregnancy; Grows to accommodate growing fetus, placenta, amniotic sac, and amniotic fluid during pregnancy
Chadwick’s sign Cervix and vagina take on a bluish-violet hue due to local venous congestion
Goodell’s sign Cervix softens in consistency in preparation for childbirth
During Pregnancy, the Vagina Vagina takes on same bluish-violet hue of the cervix during pregnancy; Increase of glycogen in vaginal cells Causes increased vaginal discharge and heavy shedding of vaginal cells; Favors growth of Candida albicans
Leukorrhea Thick, white vaginal discharge during pregnancy
During Pregnancy, the Breasts Increase in size and shape; Nipples increase in size and become more erect; Areola become larger and more darkly pigmented Montgomery’s tubercles become more active and secrete substance that lubricates nipples; secretes colustrum
Colostrum Thin, yellowish discharge from nipples Forerunner of breast milk
During Pregnancy, Blood Pressure May experience hypotension during second and third trimesters (4th to 9th month) when supine; Weight of pregnant uterus presses against descending aorta and inferior vena cava May experience hypertension as a complication of pregnancy
Changes in Urination during First Trimester Urinary frequency due to increasing size of uterus, creates pressure on bladder
Changes in Urination during Second Trimester Uterus rises up out of the pelvis and pressure on bladder is relieved
Changes in Urination during Third Trimester Frequency returns due to pressure of baby’s head on bladder
Changes in Posture during Pregnancy Wider stance when walking; Softening of pelvic joints, relaxing of pelvic ligaments causes an offset of center of gravity; During third trimester, stress on abdominal muscles may cause a gait that includes walking with shoulders back and abdomen forward;
Changes in the Skin during Pregnancy Possible increased feeling of warmth and sweating Due to increased activity of sweat glands Possible problems with facial blemishes Due to increased activity of sebaceous glands
Chloasma Hyperpigmentation seen on forehead, cheeks, and bridge of nose Known as “mask of pregnancy”
Linea nigra Darkened vertical midline on abdomen (between fundus and symphysis pubis)
Striae Gravidarum Stretch marks on abdomen, thighs, and breasts
The areolas Becomes darker as pregnancy progresses
Recommended weight gain during pregnancy Ranges from 25 to 30 pounds Pattern of weight gain is important 1st to 3rd month = 3 to 4 pounds total 4th to 9th month = 1 pound per week Critical to monitor for unexpected increases in Fluid retention Pregnancy-induced hypertension
Presumptive signs of Pregnancy: early signs and symptoms Suggests pregnancy but are not necessarily positive Include amenorrhea, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, urinary disturbances, and breast changes
Quickening Movement (abdominal fluttering) at approximately 18 to 20 weeks
Probable signs of Pregnancy Should not be used as sole indicator of pregnancy; Include Goodell’s sign, Chadwick’s sign, uterine enlargement, hyperpigmentation of skin, abdominal striae, palpation of fetal outline, positive pregnancy tests
Hegar's Sign Softening of lower segment of uterus
Braxton Hicks Contractions Irregular contractions of the uterus May occur throughout the pregnancy and are relatively painless
Ballottement Technique of use of examiner’s finger to tap against the uterus, through the vagina, to cause the fetus to “bounce” within the amniotic fluid and feeling it rebound quickly
Fetal Heartbeat Detected by ultrasound at approximately 10 weeks’ gestation Detected by fetoscope at 18 to 20 weeks’ gestation Normal range: 120 to 160 beats/minute
Identification of embryo/fetus by ultrasound Earliest positive confirmation of pregnancy Can be detected as early as 5 to 6 weeks
Fetal movements felt by examiner Palpable by examiner by second trimester of pregnancy
Birth date for the baby Expected date of confinement (EDC) Expected date of delivery (EDD) Expected date of birth (EDB)
Naegele's Rule Subtract 3 months from beginning of LMP Add 1 year and 7 days = EDC
Temporary discomforts of pregnancy Backache, Edema, Fatigue,Heartburn, Hemorrhoids, Nausea, Varicose Veins
Abortion Termination of a pregnancy before the fetus has reached a viability (an age at which the fetus could live outside of the uterine environment)
Abruptio Placenta Premature separation of a normally implanted placenta from the uterine wall Can occur after the pregnancy has passed 20 weeks’ gestation or during labor
Ectopic Pregnancy Abnormal implantation of a fertilized ovum outside of the uterine cavity; Also called a tubal pregnancy Approximately 90 percent of all ectopic pregnancies occur in the fallopian tubes
Gestational Diabetes Disorder in which women who are not diabetic before pregnancy develop diabetes during the pregnancy Develop an inability to metabolize carbohydrates (glucose intolerance), with resultant hyperglycemia
Risk Factors for Gestational Diabetes Obesity Maternal age over 30 years History of birthing large babies Usually over 10 pounds Family history of diabetes Previous, unexplained stillborn birth Previous birth with congenital anomalies (defects
HELLP Syndrome Serious obstetrical complication that occurs in approximately 10 percent of pregnant women with pre-eclampsia or eclampsia HELLP stands for Hemolytic anemia, Elevated Liver enzymes, and Low Platelet count
Hydatidiform Mole Begins as a pregnancy & deviates from normal development very early; Diseased ovum deteriorates (not producing a fetus) ; Chorionic villi of placenta changes to a mass of cysts resembling a bunch of grapes
Hyperemesis Gravidarum Abnormal condition of pregnancy characterized by severe vomiting that results in maternal dehydration and weight loss
Incompetent Cervix Condition in which cervical os dilates before the fetus reaches term, without labor or uterine contractions Usually occurs during second trimester of pregnancy Results in spontaneous abortion of fetus
Placenta Previa Condition of pregnancy in which the placenta is implanted in the lower part of the uterus; Classic symptom is painless bleeding during third trimester of pregnancy
Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension (PIH) Development of hypertension during pregnancy in women who had normal blood pressure readings prior to pregnancy
Gestational hypertension Gestational hypertension Develops after 20 weeks’ gestation with no signs of edema or proteinuria
Pre-eclampsia Develops after 20 weeks’ gestation with proteinuria or edema Eclampsia
Eclampsia Most severe form of hypertension during pregnancy Evidenced by presence of seizures
Rh Incompatibility Incompatibility between an Rh-negative mother’s blood with her Rh-positive baby’s blood Causes mother’s body to develop antibodies that will destroy the Rh positive blood
Signs and Symptoms of Labor: Bloody Show Vaginal discharge that is a mixture of thick mucus and pink or dark brown blood; Occurs as a result of the softening, dilation, and effacement of the cervix in preparation for childbirth
Signs and Symptoms of Labor: Braxton Hicks Mild, irregular contractions that occur throughout pregnancy
Signs and Symptoms of Labor: Increased Vaginal Discharge Clear, nonirritating vaginal secretions Occurs as result of congestion of vaginal mucosa
Signs and Symptoms of Labor: Lightening Settling of the fetal head into the pelvis; Occurs a few weeks prior to the onset of labor
Signs and Symptoms of Labor: Rupture of the amniotic sac Rupture of fetal membranes, releasing amniotic fluid inside May result in a sudden gush of amniotic fluid Women may say their “water broke”
Signs and Symptoms of Labor: Sudden burst of energy Occurs in some women shortly before onset of labor Conservation of energy should be suggested, to assist with decrease of fatigue during labor
In False Labor Contractions are: Irregular, not too frequent, shorter duration, not too intense; discomfort felt in abdomen and groin, walking may relieve or decrease contractions, Dilation and effacement of cervix does not change
In True Labor Contractions are: Regular, more frequent, longer duration, more intense, pain felt in lower back, radiates to lower abdomen, feels like menstrual cramps, walking may strengthen contractions, Cervix progressively effaces and dilates
AFP Screening Serum screening test for levels of alpha-fetaprotein in a pregnant woman’s blood; Assists with the determination of the risk of birth defects such as spina bifida, Down syndrome, and trisomy 18
Amniocentesis Passage of a needle into the amniotic sac for the removal of amniotic fluid for examination
Cesarean section Surgical procedure in which the abdomen and uterus are incised and a baby is delivered transabdominally
Chorionic villus sampling Test performed in first trimester of pregnancy to detect chromosomal abnormalities (such as Down syndrome) in unborn child; Small amount of placental tissue is removed during 11th to 13th week of pregnancy Contains same genetic data as fetus
Contraction stress test Stress test used to evaluate the ability of the fetus to tolerate the stress of labor and delivery Also known as the oxytocin challenge test
Fetal monitoring (electronic) Use of an electronic device to monitor fetal heart rate and maternal uterine contractions
First Trimester Screening Consists of a blood test (maternal serum sample) and ultrasound to identify pregnancies at risk for birth detects such as Down syndrome and trisomy 18; Only indicates level of risk Blood test measures PAPP-A and beta HCG
Nipple stimulation test Noninvasive technique that produces the same results as the contraction stress test Pregnant woman stimulates the nipples of her breasts by rubbing them between her fingers Causes natural release of oxytocin that causes contractions of uterus
Obstetrical ultrasound Noninvasive procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to examine internal structures and contents of the uterus Ultrasonography
Pelvic ultrasound Noninvasive procedure using high-frequency sound waves to examine the abdomen and pelvis
Pelvimetry Process of measuring the female pelvis, manually or by X-ray, to determine its adequacy for vaginal delivery
Pregnancy Testing Tests performed on maternal urine and/or blood to determine the presence of hormone HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) HCG is detected shortly after first missed menstrual period
Created by: MsKim6399