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251 Mind & Brain

Chapter 5 (133-151)

Why are we suprisignly poor observers of our own experiences? We assume we know what's out thee until it's proven otherwise.
"The process of transforming a sensory stimulus outside the body into the electrochemical signals used by the neurons of the nervous system." Sensory transduction
"The cells of the inner ear that are important for perceiving sound and monitoring balance." Hair cells
Sensory machinery is confronted at every moment with a barrage of information, and it is the task of the _______ to reduce that amount of information to a single ______ _____ of the thing being perceived. nervous system, mental representation
"Energy that travels through space in a wavelike pattern." Electromagnetic radiation
What are 7 categorized frequency ranges of electromagnetic radiation? 1.Radio waves 2.Microwaves 3.Infrared radiation 4.Ultraviolet radiation 5.X-rays 6.Gamma rays 7.Visible light
Which categroized frequency range of electromagnetic radiation can humans detect? Visible light
___% of cortical area is devoted to detecting and processing vision, compared with only __% for touch and __% for hearing. 30, 8, 3
"The clear region at the front of the eye through which light passes to enter the eye." Cornea
"Particles of light that enter the eye through the cornea." Photons
"The colored ring of muscle that can expand or contract to control how much light enters the eye." Iris
"The opening at the center of the eye that is surrounded by the iris; it allows light to enter the eye and, ultimately, be focused on the retina." Pupil
"The structure behind the pupil that changes shape to focus on the incoming light on the retina." Lense
"The region at the back of the eye, containing the light-sensistive cells of the visual system, such as rods and cones." Retina
What are the 5 cells layered in the retina (from the side closest to the lens to the side furthest from the lens)? 1.Retinal ganglion cells 2.Amacrine cells 3.Bipolar cells 4.Horizontal cells 5.Photoreceptors
Light (when entering the eye) passes through the 5 cells that compose the layered structure of the retina in what order? Retinal ganglion cells > Amacrine cells > Bipolar cells > Horizontal cells > Photoreceptors
"Retinal neurons that carry information to the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus, on the way to the primary visual cortex." Retinal ganglion cells
"Cells within the retina that facilitate communication between different parts of the retina." Amacrine cells
"Cells within the retina that enable nearby regions of the retina to exchange information." Horizontal cells
"The process by which light is converted into the electrochemical signals used by the nervous system." Phototransduction
The information that results from the phototransduction process flows out of the eye to the ____ through the same cells (_____, _____, ______, ______, ____) but in _____sequence of the process when light first entered the retina. brain, retinal ganglion cells, amacrine cells, bipoolar cells, hortizontal cells, photoreceptors, reverse
What are the 2 types of photoreceptors? 1.Rods 2.Cones
"Photoreceptors within the eye that are sensitive to colour, but are highly responsive to even low levels of light." Rods
"Photoreceptors within the eye that are sensitive to different colors, but which require relatively high levels of illumination to function (ie. daylight)." Cones
Cones come in what 3 types? Short (blue), Medium (green), and long (Red)
"The region at the center of the retina where the cones are concentrated, making it important for detailed color vision." Fovea
Cones have ____ spatial resolution, and rods have _____ spatial resolution. high, low
What are the 2 reasons why cones are more sensitive to stimulus than rods are? 1.Fovea's indentation on the surface of retina & smaller cells in that area give light direct acess to photoreceptors 2.Each cone is connected to its own bipolar cell & its own retinal ganglion cell > light can come from only one place in retina
"The region of the external world to which a sensory neuron is able to respond. Examples might include a spatial location, a part of the body, or a portion of the visual field, depending on the sensory modality." Receptive field
"Way of describing the receptive field of the retinal ganglion cells > highlights the fact that stimulating the center of the receptive field will either excite or inhibit the cell. Stimulating the ring surrounding the center: opposite effect." Center-surround structure
"On-center-cells" (type of retinal ganglion cell) fire when... there is a small point of light in the center of the receptive field.
"Off-center-cells" (type of retinal ganglion cell) fire when... there is light in the surrounding receptive field.
When light stimulates both the center and surrounding regions of "on-center-cells" or "off-center-cells" (types of retinal ganglion cells), what happens? Very weak response (cancels out)
"A process of emphasizing the differences in brightness between 2 surfaces." Contrast enhancement
"The second cranial nerve, containing the axons of the retinal ganglion cells, which converge to leave the eye and convey visual information into the brain." Optic nerve
"The region of the retina where there are no photoreceptors because the optic nerve is exiting the eye through that point." Blind spot
"The point at which the left and right optic nerves converge, allowing the information from both the left and the right eye to be recombined so that information from the right visual field reaches the left hemisphere, and vice versa (chiasm=cross-over)." Optic chiasm
After the chiasm, once the fibers have been sorted into the 2 visual fields, the nerve bundles are now called the ____ _____. optic tracts
"Light-sensitive cells of the retina. Cones and Rods." Photoreceptors
What is the process through which light passes externally through to the retina? Cornea > iris > pupil > lens > retina
What is the process through which signlals (from light) pass from the retinal ganglion cells to the primary visual cortex? retinal ganglion cells > optic nerve > LGN > optic radiation > primary visual cortex
"Retinal ganglion cells that get their input primarily from cones and are therefore color sensitive, with high spatial resolution. Smaller than magnocellular retinal ganglion cells." Parvocellular retinal ganglion cells
"Retinal ganglion cells that get their input primarily from rods, & are therefore not color sensitive;although they have relatively low spatial resolution, they are good at detecting moving stimuli. Larger than parvocellular retinal ganglion cells." magnocellular retinal ganglion cells
"The axons that carry the visual information from the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus to the primary visual cortex." Optic radiations
"A specialized part of the thalamus that is part of the visual pathway relaying information from the retina to the primary visual cortex." Lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)
Which 2 types of cells project through different pathways into different parts of the LGN? 1.Parvocellular cells 2.Magnocellular cells
How many out of the 6 layers of the LGN receive input from the parvocelullar cells and how many from the magnocellular cells? 2 from the magnocellular cells and 4 from the parvocellular cells
The magnocellular layers of the LGN process information from the ____, which carry information about ____, _____, and _____. rods, depth, brightness, movement
The parvocellular layers of the LGN process information from the _____ about fine ___ from the visual scene including _____ and _____. cones, details, form, color
From the LGN, visual information travels via axons known as the _____ _____ to the primary visual cortex. optic radiations
"Another name for the primary visual cortex (V1)" Striate cortex
"Each neuron responds to a particular part of the visual field, amd neighbouring neurons respond to neighbouring parts of the visual field." retinotropic organization (within the primary visual cortex)
"Different orientations of an edge (or simply a line) will maximally activate different neurons." Orientation tuning
What are the 2 different types of cells in the primary visual vortex? Simple and complex
"Cells witin the primary visual cortex (V1) that respond best to lines of light at a particular angle and at a particular location within the respective field." Simple cells
"Cells within the primary visual cortex (V1) that respond best to lines of light at a particular angle, but at any location within the receptive field." Complex cells
Likw the rest of the cortex, the primary visual cortex is organized into ______, with all the cells within a given ______ performing similar functions. columns, column
"Clusters of cells within the primary visual cortex (V1) that process color-related information." Blobs
Together, the ocular dominance columns from left eye & the right eye, the orientation-tuned columns of a full rotation of orientations, & the blobs are called a __, which contains all the information that relates to a single location in the visual field." hypercolumn
"Our 2 eyes receive slightly different images, but htis slight informational difference does not confuse the visual system. Instead, it uses the differences to extract depth information:from 2D to 3D." Stereo vision
At the V1 stage of interpreting visual stimuli, what can we see? A simple reflection of the world.
At what stage (V1, V2,V3,V4,V5) do we first distinguish the Kanizsa figure? V2
"The second stage of the visual processing hierarchy; cells in this region have slightly larger receptive fields than those in the primary visual cortex." Secondary visual cortex (V2)
"Regions, including V3, V4, and V5, that are involved in processing more complex aspects of visual stimuli." Tertiary visual cortex (V3)
V2 receives direct connections from ___, which V2 receptive fields are built off of. V1
Neurons in V1 do not respond to the orientation of _____ ____, but neurons in V2 do. illusory lines
As visual information becomes more abstracted, the information moves into what 2 streams? 1.Ventral stream 2.Dorsal stream
"A pathway within the visual system from the visual cortex to the inferior temporal area that specializes in determining the identity of an object (how to identify and categorize objects, the "what" pathway)." Ventral stream
"Pathway within the visual system from the visual cortex to the parietal lobe that focuses on determining an object's location (where objects are and how to interact with them)." Dorsal stream
"The inferior portion of the temporal lobe." Inferotemporal cortex
(Ventral stream) As information progresses from posterior regions toward the anterior tip of the ______ lobe, neurons go from encoding features (such as _____, ____ and _____) to specific ojects (such as ____, ____, and _____). temporal, lines, curves, angles, faces, cars, logos
One part of the inferior temporal lobe (IT), the ______, seems to be selective for recognizing faces fusiform gyrus
The complexity of shapes encoded (ventral stream) increases as we pass from V4 into _______ regions, and it continues to increase as we move from _______ cells toward ______ cells. inferior temporal (IT), posterior IT, anterior IT
"Pproperty of representations in ventral visual pathway in which neurons will respond to particular type of stimulus, no matter size or position. Useful for pathways that must identify an object reliably, regardless of position or orientation in space." Position invariance (or size invariance)
What are the 2 strategies for how the brain can encode information int he visual cortex (from specific visual features to general understandings of objects)? 1.Sparse coding 2.Population coding
"A proposed method for encoding visual information in which only a few neurons out of the local population are involved in representing any particular stimulus." Sparse coding
"A property of neural activity via action potentials; a neuron either fires an aciton potential or does not, with no in-between states or levels of activity." All-or-none
Explain when stimuli are sparsely encoded vs population coded. The more familiar the stimuli, the sharper the representation of individual neurons, the sparser the encoding, and the more clustered the neurons become that represent the object.
"A region of visual association cortex in the inferior temporal lobe, playing a specific role in identifying faces." Fusiform face area
The dorsal stream moves from _____ into the _______. V1, parietal lobe
"Part of the visual processing pathway that is specialized for detecting motion in the visual field." Area V5
"Illusion, following exposure to a visual field moving in one direction, other things appear to drift the other way. Ex: after looking away from a waterfall, the rocks and trees and dirt appear to be levitating upward" Motion afterfeffect (waterfall illusion)
From the viewpoint of the brain, motion detection can be achieved with neural mechanisms that are directly sensitive to a target's velocity, without regard to _____. position
"The inability to detect motion in visual stimuli although the stimuli themselves can still be seen; usually occurs following damage to the motion-detecting areas of the visual pathway, such as area V5." Motion blindness
"The process of selecting some parts of the scene for more detailed analysis. Active, not passive." Attention
Attention is _____: it ___ perception of stimuli that are attended to , and it ____ with the processing of those that are not. selective, improves, interferes
The dorsal stream is critical for guiding and adjusting the spotlight of _____. attention
"A syndrome in which the patient loses the ability to pay attention to or interact with stimuli in one or half of the sensory environment, usually the left half; commonly seen in patients with strokes affecting the right temporoparietal cortex." Hemineglect
What are 3 common daily things patients with hemineglect do? 1.Only shave the one side of their face 2.Only eat dinner on the one side of their plate 3.Only dress the one side of their body
"A disorder resulting from damage to both the left and the right parietal lobes, preventing the affected person from understanding the big picture of a scene." Balint's syndrome
"An inability to identify and recognize multiple objects in a visual scene; occurs following neurological injury to the region near the junction of the occipital and temporal lobes." Simultagnosia
"An inability to recognize faces, which may result from damage to the inferior temporal lobe encompassing the fusiform face area." Prosopagnosia (face blindness)
Perception is _____, not ____. active, passive
"The ability to detect and respond to visual stimuli in certain situations, despicte a subjective sense of blindness." Blindsight
Created by: jarnol33