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Chem 1 Vocab Wk 7-9

molecules two or more atoms joined to one another in specific geometric arrangements
states of matter solid, liquid, gas (plasma)
solid atoms or molecules packed closed to each other in a fixed shape
crystalline atoms or molecules arranged in a geometric pattern with long-range, repeating order
amorphous atoms or molecules NOT in any particular pattern and without long-range, repeating order
liquid atoms or molecules are close to each other but they are free to move around and by each other
gas atoms or molecules are separated by large distances and are free to move relative to one another
compressible forcing gas molecules to become closer to each other
pure substance composed of only one type of atom or molecule
mixture composed of two or more different types of atoms or molecules
element a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
compound a substance composed of two or more elements in fixed definite proportions.
matter anything that occupies space and has mass
atoms fundamental building blocks of matter / smallest identifiable unit of an element
heterogeneous mixture two or more regions with different compositions
homogeneous mixture same composition throughout
physical property a substance displays without changing its composition
chemical property a substance displays only through changing its composition
physical change different form of the same substance
chemical change results in a completely new substance
chemical reaction process by which one or more substances transform into different substances via a chemical change
reactants substances present before the chemical change
products substances present after the chemical change
decanting carefully pouring off
distillation boiling off the substance with a lower boiling point
volatile tending to vaporize easily
filtration pouring a mixture through filter paper
Energy the capacity to do work
Law of conservation of energy energy can not be created nor destroyed
kinetic energy energy associated with its motion
potential energy energy associated with its position or composition
electrical energy energy associated with the flow of electrical charge
thermal energy energy associated with random motions of atoms and molecules in matter
chemical energy potential energy associated with the positions of the particles that compose the chemical system.
calorie the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 degree Celsius
Calorie 1000 calories
kilowatt-hour a unit of energy equal to 3.6 million joules
exothermic chemical reactions that release energy
endothermic chemical reactions that absorb energy from their surroundings
temperature the measure of a substances thermal energy
heat capacity the quantity of heat required to change the temperature of a given amount of the substance by 1 degree Celsius
specific heat capacity the heat capacity of a substance in joules per gram degree Celsius (J/g °C)
alkali metals The group 1A elements, which are highly reactive metals
alkaline earth metals the Group 2A elements, which are fairly reactive metals
anions a negatively charged ion
atomic mass average mass of the atoms of an element
atomic mass unit (amu) the unit commonly used to express the mass of protons, neutrons, and nuclei
atomic number (Z) the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
cation a positively charged ion
charge a fundamental property of protons and electrons
chemical symbol a one or two letter abbreviation for an element
electron a negatively charged particle that occupies most of the atom's volume but contributes almost none of its mass
family (of elements) a group of elements that have similar outer electron configurations and therefore similar properties. Families occur in vertical columns in the periodic table.
group (of elements) vertical columns of the periodic table / elements that have similar outer electron configurations and similar properties
halogens the Group 7A elements which are very reactive nonmetals
ion an atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons, so that it has an electric charge
isotope atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
main-group elements Groups 1A-8A on the periodic table. Have properties that tend to be predictable based on their position in the periodic table.
mass number the sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atom
metalloids the elements that fall along the boundary between the metals and the nonmetals in the periodic table
metals elements that tend t olose electrons in chemical reactions.
neutron a nuclear particle with no electrical charge and nearly the same mass as a proton.
noble gases Group 8A elements, which are chemically unreactive
nonmetals elements that tend to gain electrons in chemical reactions
nuclear radiation the energetic particles emitted from the nucleus of an atom when it is undergoing a nuclear process
nuclear theory of the atom most of the atom's mass and all of its positive charge are contained in a small, dense nucleus
nucleus the small core containing most of the atom's mass and all of its positive charge. made up of protons and neutrons.
percent natural abundance the percentage amount of each isotope of an element in a naturally occurring sample of the element
periodic law states that when the elements are arranged in order of increasing relative mass, certain sets of properties recur periodically
periodic table an arrangement of the elements in which atomic number increases from left to right and elements with similar properties fall in columns call families or groups.
proton a positively charged nuclear particle. a proton's mass is approximately 1 amu.
radioactive describes a substance that emits tiny, invisible, energetic particles from the nuclei of its component atoms
semiconductor a compound or element exhibiting intermediate electrical conductivity that can be changed and controlled
transition elements / metals elements in the middle of the periodic table whose properties tend to be less predictable based simply on their position in the periodic table. tend to lose electrons in chemical reactions.
Created by: droesener