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SOCI Chpt. 1

Intro & Theory + Sociological Method

TermDefinition
Sociology Systematic/scientific study of human GROUP BEHAVIOR
Cliques- Biology Attraction to physical similarities
SYMBOLIC INTERACTION (Mead) Close focus on SMALL groups & SPECIFIC situations. MEANING IS IMPORTANT
Structural Functionalism (Durkheim) Societies must possess CONSENSUS (goal), COOPERATION, & STABILITY (which comes from ^)
In functional structuralism, all works together for good until... A CHANGE comes from an OUTSIDE force
microsociological focus on small groups & specific situations
Conflict Model (Marx) Society is inherently unequal. This leads to CONFLICT
MACROsociological Focus on society as a whole
Sociological Imagination ability to see things socially & how they influence and interact w. each other OUTSIDE of what is currently the social construct (alternate social universe)
Social Construction An idea/practice that people agree exist. The practice is maintained over time & people forget the practice was CONSTRUCTED, they come to view it as something natural, when it's not
Socialization social proccess where children develop awareness of social NORMS & values, therfore, learning how to act in certain situations
COMTE (french philosopher) Invented the word "sociology" & felt it should contribute to WELFARE of humanity by PREDICTING & CONTROLLING human behavior
anomie Social norms lose hold over individual behavior (Durkheim suicide analyzation)
Harriet Martineau "first woman sociologist" introduced that sociology shoul dlook at ALL aspects of life / wanted to use findings to benifit humans (like Comte)
WEB DU BOIS 1st black to recieve doctorate from Harvard. "DOUBLE CONCIOUSNESS" advocate for struggle of African Americans (founded NAACP)
Functionalism social events can be explained by the FUNCTIONS they perform/ CONTRIBUTIONS they make to society
cliques- psychology having a comfort zone
Sociological Theory statements that seek to explain PROBLEMS, ACTIONS, or BEHAVIORS
Social structure underlying patterns in how people behave in their relationships with one another
Social order Groups usual and cusomary social arrangements that members DEPEND on & base their lives around
Agency Capacity of individuals to act independently and make their own free choices
Structure factors (race, class, gender) that limits an agent and their decisions
social change the alteration of culture & societies over time
Comte believed in 3 stages 1)Theological Stage 2)Metaphysical stage 3) Positive stage
Rational choice theory Individuals act in own best interest
Epistimology Study of determining the truth
Folk Knowledge Common sense (ruined by internet)
Authoritative knowledge Authority figures MUST be right cause they have power
Chiapas NAFTA threatened peaceful indigenous economic stability, so they revolted (structural functinoalism-outside force)
CONFLICT PRODUCES POTENTIAL FOR... SOCIAL CHANGE! (conflict model)
Aristotle deductive reasoning what you know SEEMS logical, so it must be right (sun moves so sun MUST revolve around earth)
Scientific Epistimology truth by measuring & observing. CAN BE REPEATED w/ same results!
Steps of SOCIOLOGICAL METHODS Specify population, HOW many you'll observe in population (census or sample), decide on WHICH technique you'll use, SUMMARIZE findings
techniques surveys, experiments, natural observation
SPURiousness correlation b/w variables with no causational link. (crime & ice-cream link)
marriage A socially approved sexual relationship b/w 2 ppl with expectance of procreation/offspring
SEMIotics non speaking objects can create meaning (traffic lights)
indstrialization machines produce goods
subculture values & norms different from the majority, held by a group w/in a wider society
multiculturalism ethnic groups exist seperately & share equally in economic + political life
Ethnocentrism Looking at OTHER cultures thru one's OWN CULTURE and MISREPRESENTING them
cultural relativism judging society by its own standards
Created by: odettelira